Reliable material on Israel-Palestine conflict
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13-08-2014, 10:45 PM (This post was last modified: 14-08-2014 01:17 AM by Youkay.)
Reliable material on Israel-Palestine conflict
I would like to share reliable sources on the matter of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. I hope this will help people to educate themselves on this conflict or to overcome media and politics propagated misinformation.



Human Rights Organizations


In any international conflict, regardless of scale or nature, human rights organizations have been the prime source to seek information and consultation. Their credibility is built on a long record of integrity, honesty and accuracy. It is startling to see that among human rights organizations, there is absolutely no controversy on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.



Amnesty International

Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories

"A ceasefire between Israeli forces and Palestinian armed groups agreed in January 2009 was generally respected. The Israeli army maintained draconian controls on the movement of Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), including a blockade on the Gaza Strip that deepened hardship and virtually imprisoned the entire population of 1.5 million."

"The expansion of illegal Israeli settlements on seized Palestinian land, partially frozen until 26 September, resumed. Israel still did not conduct adequate investigations into alleged war crimes and other serious violations of international law by its forces during Operation “Cast Lead”, the 22-day offensive in Gaza in December 2008/January 2009, during which nearly 1,400 Palestinians, including more than 300 children, were killed."


http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/israel-...eport-2011


Annual Report: Israel and the Occupied Palestinian Territories 2013

"The Israeli authorities held more than 4,500 Palestinian prisoners, including 178 administrative detainees at the end of the year, after a temporary decrease in numbers following Palestinian and international protests. Torture and other ill-treatment of detainees during arrest and interrogation was reported. Israel's military blockade of the Gaza Strip continued to severely affect Gaza's 1.6 million residents.2

"The myriad restrictions imposed by the Israeli authorities on the movement of Palestinians amounted to collective punishment of the population of Gaza and the West Bank, in violation of international law. Over 500 Israeli checkpoints and barriers in the West Bank, as well as the fence/wall, restricted Palestinians' movement, particularly in East Jerusalem, part of Hebron, the Jordan Valley and areas near settlements."


http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/repor...ories-2013


Trigger-happy: Israel's use of excessive force in the West Bank:

"This report focuses on the use of excessive force by Israeli forces in the West Bank since the beginning of 2011. In doing so, it details cases of killings and injuries by Israeli forces of Palestinian civilians in the context of protests in the West Bank against Israel's continuing military occupation of the Palestinian territories, illegal Israeli settlements and the fence/wall, as well as Israel's treatment of Palestinian prisoners and detainees and violence against Palestinians by Israeli settlers.

Israel's policy of settling its civilians on occupied land violates the Fourth Geneva Convention and is considered a war crime according to the statute of the International Criminal Court"


http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/repor...-west-bank

http://www.amnestyusa.org/pdfs/mde150022014en.pdf


Dashed Hopes: Continuation of the Gaza Blockade

"According to UN agencies, the Gaza strip needs about 86,000 new housing units to accommodate past population growth and also to replace the homes destroyed or damaged as a result of Israeli military operations. It would require the entry of over 670,000 truckloads of construction materials into Gaza in order to build these units. Since the ‘easing’ of the blockade only 715 truckloads of construction materials for all uses (not only housing) have entered Gaza per month on average, a mere 11% of pre-blockade levels"

"In addition to limitations on access to raw materials, Gaza’s productive sector is
paralysed by the continuing ban on exports. [...] The much reported economic growth of 16% in Gaza relates to the period between the first quarter of 2009 and first quarter of 2010, prior to the ‘easing’. The World Bank partly attributes this growth to a lowered base for comparison caused by the plunge in economic activity during operation Cast Lead and subsequent months of 2009"

http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/...rt2011.pdf


Troubled Waters: Palestinians denied fair access to water

"Some 4,000,000 Palestinians, more than 1,500,000 of them refugees, currently live in the OPT (Occupied Palestinian Territory) under Israeli military occupation - some 1.5 million in Gaza and some 2.5 million in the West Bank - including more than 200,000 who live in East Jerusalem."

"Since Israel occupied the West Bank in 1967, it has denied its Palestinian inhabitants access to the water resources of Jordan River, preventing them from physically accessing the river banks and diverting the river flow upstream
into Lake Kinneret/Tiberias/Sea of Galilee, which supplies up to 700 MCM/Y of water to Israel. Jordan also diverts the flow of the Jordan River’s tributaries within its territory, as do Syria and Lebanon further upstream. As a consequence, compared to 1953, when a UN report estimated the yearly flow of the Jordan
River through the West Bank as 1,250 MCM, this flow has now been reduced to a trickle, of highly saline water heavily contaminated by untreated sewage.

As Palestinians in the West Bank have no access to the Jordan River, the Mountain Aquifer is their only remaining source of water. Israel, on the other hand, has two other main water resources (Lake Kinneret/Tiberias/Sea of Galilee and the Coastal Aquifer).

Even so, Israel limits the amount of water annually available to Palestinians from the Mountain Aquifer to no more than 20 per cent, while it has continued to consistently over-extract water for its own usage far in excess of the aquifer’s yearly sustainable yield"


http://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/...2009en.pdf



Human Rights Watch


“Forget About Him, He’s Not Here”: Israel’s Control of Palestinian Residency in the West Bank and Gaza

"This report describes the arbitrary exclusion by the Israeli military of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians since 1967 and documents the impact that exclusion continues to have on individuals and families. The way Israel’s military has exercised its control over the Palestinian population registry – the list of Palestinians whom it considers to be lawful residents of the West Bank and Gaza territories – has separated families, caused people to lose jobs and educational opportunities, barred people from entering the Palestinian territories, and trapped others inside them."

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/02/05/fo...not-here-0

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/02/05/fo...s-not-here


Separate and Unequal: Israel’s Discriminatory Treatment of Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories

"This report shows that Israel operates a two-tier system for the two populations of the West Bank in the large areas where it exercises exclusive control. The report is based on case studies comparing Israel’s starkly different treatment of settlements and next-door Palestinian communities in these areas. It calls on the US and EU member states and on businesses with operations in settlement areas to avoid supporting Israeli settlement policies that are inherently discriminatory and that violate international law."

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/12/19/se...-unequal-0

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/12/19/se...nd-unequal


“I Lost Everything”: Israel's Unlawful Destruction of Property during Operation Cast Lead

"This 116-page report documents 12 separate cases during Operation Cast Lead in which Israeli forces extensively destroyed civilian property, including homes, factories, farms, and greenhouses, in areas under their control, without any lawful military purpose. Human Rights Watch's investigations, which relied upon physical evidence, satellite imagery, and multiple witness accounts at each site, found no indication of nearby fighting when the destruction occurred."

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/05/13/i-...erything-0

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2010/05/13/i-lost-everything


Israel/Palestine: Unlawful Israeli Airstrikes Kill Civilians

"Israeli air attacks in Gaza investigated by Human Rights Watch have been targeting apparent civilian structures and killing civilians in violation of the laws of war. Israel should end unlawful attacks that do not target military objectives and may be intended as collective punishment or broadly to destroy civilian property. Deliberate or reckless attacks violating the laws of war are war crimes, Human Rights Watch said."

http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/07/15/israe...-civilians


Israel: Killing of Children Apparent War Crime

"Video footage, photographs, witness statements, and medical records indicate that two 17-year-old boys whom Israeli forces shot and killed on May 15, 2014 posed no imminent threat to the forces at the time."

"“The willful killing of civilians by Israeli security forces as part of the occupation is a war crime,” said Sarah Leah Whitson, Middle East and North Africa director. “Israel has a responsibility to prosecute the forces who targeted these teens, and also those responsible for assigning the use of live ammunition to police a demonstration.”


http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/06/09/israe...-war-crime


Gaza: Widespread Impact of Power Plant Attack

"The apparent Israeli shellfire that knocked out the Gaza Strip’s only electrical power plant on July 29, 2014, has worsened the humanitarian crisis for the territory’s 1.7 million people. Damaging or destroying a power plant, even if it also served a military purpose, would be an unlawful disproportionate attack under the laws of war, causing far greater civilian harm than military gain."

“If there were one attack that could be predicted to endanger the health and well-being of the greatest number of people in Gaza, hitting the territory’s sole electricity plant would be it"


http://www.hrw.org/news/2014/08/10/gaza-...ant-attack



International Federation of Human Rights

Trading Away Peace: How Europe helps sustain illegal Israeli settlements

"The report, entitled “Trading Away Peace: How Europe helps sustain illegal Israeli settlements", is the first to compare available export data from Israeli settlements and Palestinians, highlighting the inconsistency at the heart of EU policy. The EU states, “settlements are illegal under international law, constitute an obstacle to peace, and threaten to make a two-state solution impossible”, but continues to provide a primary export market for settlement products."

http://www.fidh.org/en/north-africa-midd...rope-12343


Shielded from accountability : Israel’s unwillingness to investigate and prosecute international crimes

"Using international human rights law and international criminal law criteria, including the International Criminal Court’s criteria for the evaluation of complementarity as defined in Article 17 of the Rome Statute, the paper demonstrates the systematic denial of justice to victims due to Israel’s lack of independent, effective, prompt and impartial investigations into allegations of international crimes committed by the Israeli Military in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). It examines the Israeli criminal justice system, the High Court of Justice’s (HCJ) judicial review of criminal proceedings, and the functioning of military courts in the OPT. The findings of the paper conclude that the HCJ fails to uphold the standards of impartiality and independence; and that it often turns a black eye to acts of the Executive Branch, thus facilitating perpetration of international crimes through its active involvement in legitimising alleged war crimes and shielding political and military figures from criminal responsibility. In addition, as a consequence of its refusal to investigate the wider context of policies and strategies of Israeli military operations, the HCJ has failed to prevent criminal practices, and has allowed the continuation of the suffering of the Palestinian civilian population."

http://www.fidh.org/en/north-africa-midd...untability




Academic Sources


Because academic articles have to pass through peer reviewed processes prior to publication, they are generally reliable and well referenced.


THE ISRAEL LOBBY AND U.S. FOREIGN POLICY
, Prof. John J. Mearsheimer and Prof. Stephen M. Walt

Saving Israel From Itself, Prof. John J. Mearsheimer

What Counts is the Counting: Statistical Manipulation as a Solution to Israel’s “Demographic Problem”, Prof. Ian Lustick

Israeli History: Who is Fabricating What?, Prof. Ian Lustick

Israel needs a new map, Prof. Ian Lustick

Hamas and the Arab Spring: Introduction, Dr Knudsen


Please see references within the articles to view plenty of further articles.



UN General Assembly Resolutions

The UN General Assembly resolutions are a good guide-line for the international consensus on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In sharp contrast to the media-hyped controversy, the annual UN GA Resolutions are unanimous with the exception of USA and Israel. Therefore, I only present the two most recent.


Resolution adopted by the General Assembly:
66/17. Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine
(2012)

http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/997A...950056A99C

"Recalling its resolution 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970,

Reaffirming the illegality of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem,

Stressing the extremely detrimental impact of Israeli settlement policies, decisions and activities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, on efforts to resume and advance the peace process and to achieve peace in the Middle East,

Reaffirming the illegality of Israeli actions aimed at changing the status of Jerusalem, including settlement construction and expansion, home demolitions, evictions of Palestinian residents, excavations in and around religious and historic sites, and all other unilateral measures aimed at altering the character, status and demographic composition of the city and of the Territory as a whole,

Reaffirming also that the construction by Israel, the occupying Power, of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, and its associated regime are contrary to international law, "



Resolution adopted by the General Assembly:
68/15. Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine
(2013)

http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/CD5C...78004D38D4

"Recalling its resolution 2625 (XXV) of 24 October 1970,

Reaffirming the illegality of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem,

Expressing grave concern about the extremely detrimental impact of Israeli settlement policies, decisions and activities in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, including on the contiguity, integrity and viability of the Territory and the efforts to advance the peace process and to achieve peace in the Middle East,

Expressing grave concern also about all acts of violence, intimidation and provocation by Israeli settlers against Palestinian civilians and properties, including homes, mosques, churches and agricultural lands, and calling for accountability for the illegal actions perpetrated in this regard,

Reaffirming the illegality of Israeli actions aimed at changing the status of Jerusalem, including settlement construction and expansion, home demolitions, evictions of Palestinian residents, excavations in and around religious and historic sites, and all other unilateral measures aimed at altering the character, status and demographic composition of the city and of the Territory as a whole,

Reaffirming also that the construction by Israel, the occupying Power, of a wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem, and its associated regime are contrary to international law,

Encouraging all States and international organizations to continue to actively pursue policies to ensure respect for their obligations under international law with regard to all illegal Israeli practices and measures in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, particularly Israeli settlements,

Expressing deep concern about the continuing Israeli policies of closures and severe restrictions on the movement of persons and goods, including medical and humanitarian, via the imposition of prolonged closures and severe economic and movement restrictions that in effect amount to a blockade, as well as of checkpoints and a permit regime throughout the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem,

Expressing deep concern also about the consequent negative impact of such policies on the contiguity of the Territory and the serious socioeconomic and humanitarian situation of the Palestinian people, which is critical in the Gaza Strip, and on the efforts aimed at rehabilitating and developing the damaged Palestinian economy, despite some measures taken by Israel in 2012 and 2013"

Fun "paradox": The higher the selection pressure, the slower evolution takes place.
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