Spotted Hyena(Crocuta Crocuta)
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02-02-2014, 01:44 PM (This post was last modified: 02-02-2014 01:49 PM by Metazoa Zeke.)
Bug Spotted Hyena(Crocuta Crocuta)
[Image: spotted-hyena-54T4646-08.jpg]

Life Expectancy: 25 years in the wild,41 in the zoo

Taxonomy

Class:Mammal
Subclass:Theriiformes
Clade:eutheria
Magnorder:boreoeutheria
Superorder:Laurasiatheria
?: Zooamata or Euungulata
not yet ranked:Ferae
Order:Carnivora
Suborder:Feliormia
Genus:Crocuta
Species:C.crocuta

Closest living relatives: Mongooses and Civets

First appeared: Late pliocene 3 to 2 million years ago.

Anatomy

Bones:the skull of the spotted hyena is large and has a narrow sagittal crest,other hyenas don't have. The reason its skull has taken this path of evolution is due to the diet that it eats. The premolars and carnassials have evolved for bone crushing. The premolars have evolved so that they can crush bone while eating. The carnassials are located behind the premolars so that they don't take damage when they hyena is eating bones. The skull of the Spotted hyena gives the hyena a bite that is super dangerous. The muscle attachments of the hyena skull help the hyena have one of the strongest bite forces having a 800 kgf/cm2 bite force. This beats bears when it comes to biting through bone. Hyenas also have the strongest bones out of the entire kingdom of carnivora.

Organs: The strangest of all the Spotted hyena organs is the reproductive organs. Female hyenas have a reproductive organ the mimics that of the male hyena. This is another thing exclusive to spotted hyenas that other hyenas don't have. The reason for this is still being discovered, however some scientist say that the large amount of testosterone in the females might have something to do with it.

Another powerful organ of the hyena is the heart. The hyenas heart makes up 1% of its body weight. The large heart gives the spotted hyena more endurance meaning that even with its slow run,it can run long enough to catch up with its prey.

Spotted hyenas also have a special organ that they use to make a smell. This organ is a anal gland. Using this gland the hyenas can make a identifications of themselves. The smell can show age, strength, gender of the hyena and are used to mark territory. No two hyena smells are alike and this can help with identification.

The Spotted hyena also has a long digestive tract. This has evolved so that the hyena can absorb all the nutrients of its food and so that it can digest the bones that it eats.

Behavior:

Hyenas are social animals, that hang in large groups called clans. Unlike its social relatives, hyenas tend to have groups similar to that of baboon troops. Hyena clans can grow up to more then 40 individuals. Hyenas of a clan make loud calls so that when needed, the can call for reinforcements. Each hyena clan has a ranking system. No matter what male spotted hyenas always rank lower then the females. In fact the alpha male is as high in rank as the lowest female hyena, if not lower. The ranking system in hyenas clans are to make sure that there is not chaos. Feeding also depends on rank. The queen eats first and then it goes down the latter of rank. Hyenas of lower rank that have a successful hunt will try to eat as much as they can before their superiors arrive. Even the young inherit rank. The queens children will become the highest ranking out of all the cubs and will be the most aggressive, while lower ranking cubs will be less aggressive and may get picked on by their superiors. Each clan is also different and not just in size. Fur can be different, for example one clan may have very little spots and dark fur, while another will have a lot of spots and light fur. Behavior in each clan is also different. Some clans will play with each other, while other will have violence or even death between their own clan members. Parenting can differ as well. Females in one clan may only nurse their own offspring, while another females will nurse offspring that isn't theirs.


Despite the myth, hyenas aren't huge on scavenging. Most of the time hyenas hunt. However their strategy is different. They don't stalk their prey they walk right in the middle of the crowd. Hyenas tend to not scare big predators when their is only one. But hyena are searching for the weak,old,sick, and young. When they find what they're looking for they attack. Hyenas may not be fast but they run long so that they can tire out their prey. Hyenas however don't kill their prey when they catch it, they eat it alive.

Hyena clans will come into conflict with each other. Many times it is violent other times it's not. Most of the conflict between hyenas are for food. The most common stand off for food is the when hyenas try to take over the food by intimidating each other. However when hyenas do fight it gets violent. Hyenas will lose ears, limbs, and even faces during these fights.

Male hyenas will also leave their clan to find a mate. Sometimes when they do find a mate he will try to stay in her clan. He will usually submit so the females might accept him.

Interactions with other animals:

The two most dangerous animals to spotted hyenas are humans(homo sapiens) and lions(panthera leos). Humans do kill hyenas either on purpose or by accident. Human development may also infringe on the hyenas habitat. Lions are the hyenas nemesis. Lions will steal many hyena kills. The male lions will even kill the hyena queen for sport. However hyenas also kill female lions and may even steal some lion kills.

Another group of animals hyenas interact with are the cheetah(acinonyx jubatus) and the african leopard(panthera pardus pardus). Unlike the lion these two wild cats can't do much to the hyena. Cheetahs do have their kills stolen by hyenas and their is very little one can do. Even a single hyena can take on three cheetahs. The cheetah will slam its front paws on the ground repeatedly, but this does very little to hyenas. Leopards however fair better. They can't fight back against hyenas but they can drag their prey up into the trees with them, and this is good because hyenas can't climb. However if the spotted hyena catch up to them before they make the climb the leopard must then just climb with no food to eat.

Hyenas also have a thing with vultures. Vultures in Africa like the lappet-faced vulture(torgos tracheliotos) will fly over dinner. Hyenas look to the sky and head in the direction that the vultures are located. Hyenas must be careful though because they don't want to be attacked by them. However hyenas will get their way with vultures and get the free meal that the vultures found.

[Image: males_fight-c.JPG]

Are they playing or fighting?Consider


Other place you can learn about spotted hyenas


http://www.arkive.org/spotted-hyaena/crocuta-crocuta/

http://www.youtube.com/user/ClanHyena

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/ac...a_crocuta/

http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/an...als/hyena/

[Image: Guilmon-41189.gif] ♪僕は恐怖の一定した状態に住んで、不幸、逃すもう?僕は、それはもう痛いときも気づかないと
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02-02-2014, 02:25 PM
RE: Spotted Hyena(Crocuta Crocuta)
I have fed, petted and dug a pool for one. She then duly dug up the pipes. So we had to cover them several times. Also, watched a dumb-ass Jewish TV person shoot an even dumber programme about wild animals in the Torah or something. A pity none of them ate him or at least bit him. Dodgy

Oh, and I've picked up hyena shit and dinner left-overs, of course. Take a guess which smells worse. Hint: not the shit Rolleyes

"E se non passa la tristezza con altri occhi la guarderò."
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02-02-2014, 02:46 PM
RE: Spotted Hyena(Crocuta Crocuta)
(02-02-2014 02:25 PM)Vera Wrote:  I have fed, petted and dug a pool for one. She then duly dug up the pipes. So we had to cover them several times. Also, watched a dumb-ass Jewish TV person shoot an even dumber programme about wild animals in the Torah or something. A pity none of them ate him or at least bit him. Dodgy

Oh, and I've picked up hyena shit and dinner left-overs, of course. Take a guess which smells worse. Hint: not the shit Rolleyes

i dont want to know what hyenas do to their food then

[Image: Guilmon-41189.gif] ♪僕は恐怖の一定した状態に住んで、不幸、逃すもう?僕は、それはもう痛いときも気づかないと
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02-02-2014, 02:56 PM
RE: Spotted Hyena(Crocuta Crocuta)
(02-02-2014 02:46 PM)ThePaleolithicFreethinker Wrote:  i dont want to know what hyenas do to their food then
Nah, it's pretty simple, actually. You leave shit long enough in the open, it dries up and doesn't really smell any more. You leave bones with tiny, uneaten bits of meat on it out in the open, day after (hot) day and... well, you catch my drift. (And don't get me started on the ants on the bones. Man, could they bite!)

(They are way softer than you'd think though. The hyenas, I mean. Not the poo or bones. Shit on the other hand, is unexpectedly heavy!)

"E se non passa la tristezza con altri occhi la guarderò."
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