T-rex Facts
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02-07-2016, 05:31 PM (This post was last modified: 02-07-2016 05:41 PM by ghostexorcist.)
T-rex Facts
I'm currently reading a fascinating book by David Hone titled The Tyrannosaur Chronicles: The Biology of the Tyrant Dinosaurs (2016). Below are some facts that I've culled from the first nine chapters (or 36% of the book according to kindle). I'll continue to post as I go along.

- Existed for around 100 million years (167-65 MYA).
- Basal form could have appeared as far back as 190 MYA in the early Jurrasic.
- Possibly filled the void left by the extinction at the end of the Triassic.
- 29 different species with three distinct groups.
- More closely related to crocs and pterosaurs (which are older than dinos) than the armored vegetarian Ornithopods ("bird-like") dinos.
- Situated more in the northern hemisphere (present in the North America, Asia, and Europe).
- Earliest forms popped up in America and China.
- Various species have proportional to very small arms.

- T-shaped skull (big jaws, small snout), which allowed for powerful bites.
- Skull had pneumatic areas linked to the lungs.
- Had some of the largest eyes of any land animal.
- Brain to body ratio was low, meaning that it was not super intelligent.
- Large skull cavities point to enormous olfactory senses (which is to be expected).
- Teeth on the premaxilla were similar to the incisors of mammals and would have been used for scraping flesh.
- Chomping teeth had serrations similar to steak knives.
- Teeth roots were twice as long as the crown, giving them added strength for powerful bites.
- As the teeth wore, the roots would be partially absorbed to create a new tooth, which would push out the old one.
- Might have have gone through hundreds, if not thousands, of teeth over a decade or more.

- 10 neck vertebrae (including the atlas) vs. the 9 of humans.
- Set of free floating V-shaped rib-like bones on the chest called gastralia which most likely helped support the chest while laying on the ground.
- All of the bones of the pelvis fused into one massive unit as an adult to support the creature's massive weight.
- Unlike old depictions of T-rex dragging their tail, it would have been used as a counterweight and held parallel to the ground.
- Another reason it would have been held up is because of the massive retractory muscles located on the back of the femur and base of the tail.
- The tail would have been rather stiff due to the great many vertebrae and chevron bones, muscle tissue, and blood vessels packed inside.
- Probably had a four chambered heart like crocs and birds.
- Had pneumatic air sacs in vertebral bones filled with air from the lungs.
- Due to being carnivores, they had short digestive tracts with less acidic systems.
- The latter is suggested by the presence of bone fragments in fossilized poop.
- Had a cloaca on the underside of the tail from which they may have collectively poop-peed like modern birds.
- Unlike birds, they would have produced multiple eggs in two ovaries, developed them in two oviducts, and then laid them in pairs through the cloaca.
- The cloaca of the male may of had a penis-like "intromittent organ" to help reach the female cloaca to fertilize her eggs.
- Given the lack of fossil evidence and the awkwardness of trying to maneuver huge T-rex bodies into the right position, the author humorously suggests that it could have even been like the "explosively inflating organs" of ducks.

- Arms were positioned more to the center of the chest.
- Original Theropod ancestors had four hand digits, but various T-rex species lost digit 4 or both digits 3 and 4.
- Finger digits had different numbers of bones (digit 1 = 2, 2 = 3, and 3 = 4 bones).
- Given the difference in bones, they couldn't make the equivalent of a fist.
- Would have had mobile shoulders, but stiffer elbows.
- Hands would have hung facing each other as opposed to pointing down with bent wrists.
- Early T-rex had strong grips, but later species did not.
- Had three main foot digits (2, 3, and 4) with 1 high up on the ankle like a dog and 5 just being a sliver of bone in the foot.
- Walked/ran on their toes, which had different bones like the hand (digit 2 = 3, 3 = 4, and 4 = 5 bones)
- Unlike fast animals like horses with short femurs and long tibias who perform quick strides, the T-rex had a long femur and an even longer tibia, which would have limited their speed.
- But they would have made up for this morphological limitation with long strides similar to running ostrich.

- Were covered in fine down-like feathers, some species having filaments as long as 10 cm.
- Covered the head, arms, belly, back and legs (and possibly fingers and toes), and would have looked almost like fur or long hair.
- Most likely would have had "a neat and trim appearance and neat to look at".
- Could have had strategic bare spots to allow for cooling, such as the bare spots on an ostrich's neck and legs.
- Bare spots would have obviously been scaly.
- Feathers would have served the purpose of insulation and sexual display.
- Could also possibly serve as sensors like cat whiskers.
- Desert-dwelling species may have had feathers around the eyes to act like the dust-blocking eyelashes of humans.
- Could possibly have smooth mammalian-like skin on the face, similar to that of vultures.
- Possibly even had cockscomb crests, wattles, and dewlaps, too.
- Hornlets over the eyes and gnarled mass of keratin on the snout.
- Teeth possibly hidden behind lips like komodo dragon.
- Probably would go through periods of feasting and starvation, which would have led to the animal having stores of fat or being super skinny at different periods of the year
- Hand claws were used more for gripping (at least in earlier species).
- Foot claws were less curved and would have been used more for running.
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02-07-2016, 05:38 PM
RE: T-rex Facts
Interesting. I enjoy reading that type of thing also.
Here in the Dominican Republic there is a brand of motorcycle comes from China that is called T-Rex!
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02-07-2016, 05:40 PM
RE: T-rex Facts
(02-07-2016 05:31 PM)ghostexorcist Wrote:  - Given the lack of fossil evidence and the awkwardness of trying to maneuver T-rex skeletons into the right position, the author humorously suggests that it could have even been like the "explosively inflating organs" of ducks.

That’s as far as I got. Nothing afterwards can be this good.

“I am quite sure now that often, very often, in matters concerning religion and politics a man’s reasoning powers are not above the monkey’s.”~Mark Twain
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02-07-2016, 05:48 PM
RE: T-rex Facts
(02-07-2016 05:40 PM)Full Circle Wrote:  
(02-07-2016 05:31 PM)ghostexorcist Wrote:  - Given the lack of fossil evidence and the awkwardness of trying to maneuver T-rex skeletons into the right position, the author humorously suggests that it could have even been like the "explosively inflating organs" of ducks.

That’s as far as I got. Nothing afterwards can be this good.

I laughed quite hard when I read that bit of information
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03-07-2016, 07:10 AM
RE: T-rex Facts
You know why the T-rex went extinct, don't you??

Extreme depression.

....

If your arms were so short you that you couldn't pound one out once in a while - you'd be depressed too..................

.......................................

The difference between prayer and masturbation - is when a guy is through masturbating - he has something to show for his efforts.
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03-07-2016, 07:25 AM
RE: T-rex Facts
(03-07-2016 07:10 AM)onlinebiker Wrote:  You know why the T-rex went extinct, don't you??

Extreme depression.

....

If your arms were so short you that you couldn't pound one out once in a while - you'd be depressed too..................

i doubt they had trouble sexually. if a t-rex wants to lay some pipe i doubt anything is going to stop it.
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03-07-2016, 07:32 AM
RE: T-rex Facts
(03-07-2016 07:25 AM)Dark Wanderer Wrote:  
(03-07-2016 07:10 AM)onlinebiker Wrote:  You know why the T-rex went extinct, don't you??

Extreme depression.

....

If your arms were so short you that you couldn't pound one out once in a while - you'd be depressed too..................

i doubt they had trouble sexually. if a t-rex wants to lay some pipe i doubt anything is going to stop it.
Except that the females were larger than the males. So T. rex no sex if T. she don't like T. he. See?
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03-07-2016, 07:39 AM
RE: T-rex Facts
(03-07-2016 07:10 AM)onlinebiker Wrote:  You know why the T-rex went extinct, don't you??

Extreme depression.

....

Nonsense! Please have a look at my evidence to the contrary. Does this look like depression?










Ceterum censeo, religionem delendam esse
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03-07-2016, 07:43 AM
RE: T-rex Facts
(03-07-2016 07:32 AM)Gawdzilla Wrote:  
(03-07-2016 07:25 AM)Dark Wanderer Wrote:  i doubt they had trouble sexually. if a t-rex wants to lay some pipe i doubt anything is going to stop it.
Except that the females were larger than the males. So T. rex no sex if T. she don't like T. he. See?

i didnt say it was going to be with another t-rex. whats stoppin a rex from a little interspecies action? maybe he just saw a hot plant eater milf getting a drink down by the river.
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03-07-2016, 08:00 AM
RE: T-rex Facts
(03-07-2016 07:43 AM)Dark Wanderer Wrote:  
(03-07-2016 07:32 AM)Gawdzilla Wrote:  Except that the females were larger than the males. So T. rex no sex if T. she don't like T. he. See?

i didnt say it was going to be with another t-rex. whats stoppin a rex from a little interspecies action? maybe he just saw a hot plant eater milf getting a drink down by the river.

Would make a great youtube. Tongue
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