TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
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26-11-2014, 07:43 PM
Bug TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils

[Image: 774px-Timeline_evolution_of_life.png]

Before going into the list of our transitional fossils, we must explore the start. The list will be fossils from the kingdom Animalia(metazoa)

Metazoa first appeared in the Cryogenian period 835-635 million years ago. The oldest of these animals is the phylum porifera or as they are called sponges. Within Metazoa there are two subkingdoms, Parazoa(Porifera and Placozoa) and Eumetazoa(Radiata and Bilatera).

Radiata include two phylums Cnidaria and Ctenphora. Cnidaria has our subphylum Medusozoa(Classes Cubozoa,Hydrozoa, Cyphozoa, Staurozoa, and Polypodiozoa),Class Anthozoa(Orders Ceriantharia, Hexacorailla,and Octocorallia), and the unranked Myxozoa

Bilatera include the little known animal phylums like Ornthonectida, Rhombozoa, and Chaetognatha. The three super phylums are Deuterstomia(Phylums Chordata,Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Xenoturbellida, and †Vetulicolia)Ecdysozoa(unranked Scalidophora, and unranked Panarthropoda). Protostomia includes, Platyzoa(phylums Platyhelminthes,Gastrotricha, Rotifera, and Cycliophora), Lophotrochozoa(Bryozoa, Entopracts, Brachiopoda, Mollusca, and Annelida), and the Superphylums Ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa. What separates Protostomia and Deuterostomia is their embryonic development.


Not every fossil can be a transitional fossil. There are some qualifications to be a transitional fossil.

A) The fossil must be with in a certain time range, if it is not despite its looks, it is not considered a transitional fossil what so ever

B) It must either show a connection between two groups. For example, just because a fossil is in the right time area in the fossil record but is not a direct ancestor does not make it non-transitional, as it shows a connection between the two groups, and many times genetic evidence confirms this as well.

C) It does not necessarily have to be extinct. Some members of a genus may be transitional, but there are many species in one genus(and as you will see later on class). It also does not matter if that animal is some what still alive in some way.
Now for the list of transitional fossils


Genus: Spriggina

Temporal range:Ediacaran,555 MYA
Species:Dianai Catiformis

Temporal Range:Cambrian stage 3, 520 MYA

Description:The first fossil on our list and the ancestor to the arthropods. It had a head shield like that of trilobites, but it was still had a worm body and mouth.

Description: Diania Catiformis was a very strange looking lobopod. It was simple in its worm like body, yet had jointed legs, a trait that will be seen in the later arthropods.

Genus: Anomalocaris

[Image: Anomalocaris.jpg]

Temporal Range:Early-Mid Cambrian 515 MYA

Description:Strangely enough this animal is actually a transitional form. Despite its look, this abnormal shrimp was not an arthropod like shrimps are, but instead an early ancestor. It has worm like characteristics, for example its mouth, but also has arthropod structures like its segmented appendages.

Genus: Opabinia

Temporal Range: Middle Cambrian,506-497 MYA

Description: Opabinia, like anomalocaris, is a animal most people think as a aquatic arthropod when it was really just an ancestor. It lacked jointed limbs, but had a segmented body


Genus: Rhyniella

Temporal Range: Pragian epoch of the Early Devonian 410 MYA

Description: Rhyniella is a primitive spring tail. It was once mistaken for a primitive larvae.

Genus: Rhyniognatha

Temporal Range: Early Devonian, 400 MYA

Description: Rhyniognatha is the oldest known insect. What gives its insect hood away is its mandibles. It is debated whether it had wings or not


Temporal Range:Late Caboniferous, 300 MYA

Description: This animal is the ancestor to the cockroaches, mantises, and termites. Like them It had a shield head, folded wings, and also had feelers.

Genus: Archaeolepis

Temporal Range:Lower Jurassic, 190 MYA

Description: Archaeolepis is an ancestor to moths and butterflies. It was similar in shape, but had wing scales similar to that of Trichoptera, and it had mandibles.

Genus: Melittosphecidae

Temporal Range:Upper Cretaceous, 92 MYA

Description:This was a primitive wasp-like bee. Like its wasp ancestors, it had similar legs, but has a heart shaped head, and hairs that branched on its body.

Genus: Sphecomyrma

Temporal Range:The Turonian and Companian epoch, Cretaceous period 80 MYA

Description:This was a primitive ant with traits like that of wasp. It had a short mandlble, had double tibial spurs found on its mid and hind legs. It was confirmed as an ant due its wingless body, it possessed a metapleural gland , and possessed a petiole.

Genus: Ephyllium

Temporal Range:Eocene, 47 MYA

Description: An insect that came late to the scene, but it is still a transitional fossil either way. It was flat in its body, like the leaf insect descendants, but still did not have flattened legs.


Genus: Sanctacoris

Temporal Range: Mid Cambrian, 509-497 MYA

Description: This was the ancestor of arachnids,pycnogonids, and merostomata.

Genus: Attercopus

Temporal Range :Givetian epoch during the Devonian, 390 MYA

Description: This was animal on the road to becoming a spider. It still bore a segmented body and a tail like that of whip-scorpions, however it was able to produce silk.

Genus: Eoplectreurys

Temporal Range: Jurassic period, 164 MYA

Description: This is the oldest of the Haplogynae spiders. What gave it away that it was primitive was not only the age of the fossil, but also the fact females lacked a sclerotized genitalia.


Genus: Halkieria

Temporal Range: Early-Mid Cambrian, 541 MYA

Description: This animal had a body simlar to that of wiwaxia and brachipods and mollusk. It had teeth close to that of wiwaxia, and also had a soft under side. It also had a brachiopod like shells.

Genus: Wiwaxia

[Image: wiwaxia.jpg]

Temporal Range: Early-Mid Cambrian

Description: This animal would was a mollusk that is said to be some what related to the annlids, in fact some believe this genus will end up leading to the annlids. It has similar mouth parts and morphology of mollusk, but it shares scale patterns seen on annlids.

Genus: Orthrozanclus

Temporal Range: Mid Cambrian, 505 MYA

Description: Orthroxanclus was possibly a primitve mollusk. It Did have a shell similar to Halkieriids and sclerites similar to that of wiwaxia, another possible primitive mollusk

Genus: Odontogriphus

Temporal Range: Burgess Shale Cambrian

Description: The animal that connects the mollusk, annlids, and the brachiopods. It had traits of mostly wiwaxia and mollusk. It had a tooth structure of wiwaxia and a third tooth row and the ability to shed its teeth like mollusks.


Genus: Kimberella

Temporal Range: Edicaran 558-555 MYA

Description: This was the oldest confirmed mollusk. It had a non-mineralized shell and a circulatory system, it also had no radula. However it lacked visible segmentation and had modules that formed a primitive foot

Genus: Kulindroplax

Temporal Range: Wenlock epoch, Silurian period, 425 MYA

Description: This is most defiantly a mollusk. It had a chiton like shell, something mollusk don't have, though it did have a gill array with a respiratory cavity, something mollusk do have. It also had seven dorsal valves instead of eight, I also had to mention that.


Genus: Pohlsepia

Temporal Range: Pennsylvanian Epoch, Carboniferous, 296 MYA

Description: This was the oldest know octopus. It had ten arms, no arm hooks or suckers, it had fins on its mantle and lacks an internal shell. What makes it an octopus is the fact that it had and ink sack.

Genus: Proteroctopus

Temporal Range: Lower Callovian epoch during the Mid-Jurassic, 164 MYA

Description: This octopus was most defiantly an octopus. It can be told that it is an octopus due to its suckers, and its funnel. It was still primitive however due to the fins on its mantle.

Genus: Vampyronassa

Temporal Range: Mid-Jurassic, 165-164 MYA

Description: Vampyranassa as far as its habitats and ecology goes is hardly known. However it is known as transitional fossils due to its mixture of traits. It has primitive traits like a large hyponome, an elongated mantle, and longer dorsal arms. It had some derived traits as well such as flaps, some thing vampire squids are known for.

Genus: Paleoctopus

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 89-71 MYA

Description: It is a primitive octopus. It is not known whether it is a basal octopus or a member of cirrina. It has been proposed that it is part of a coelocanth.

Genus: Jeletzkya

Temporal Range: Early Pennsylvanian epoch, Cambrian

Description: This is the earliest know squid.


Order: Bactritida

Temporal Range: Emsian epoch,Devonian-Carnian epoch Triassic, 390-235 MYA

Descrpition. This order is said to be the direct descendents of ammonoids and coleoids. Fossils show a small sized globular shaped protoconch.


Genus: Pikaia

Temporal Range: Mid Cambrian

Descrpition: This fossil is a primitive chordate. It is said to be a transitional fossil in the evolution of early vertebrates. There is a dispute whether or not it is a ancestor of vertebrates or just a relative. It is said not to be the closest relative to vertabrates and that tunicates are.

Genus: Haikouichthys

[Image: 1243630301551_f.jpg]

Temporal Range: Cambrian 535-520 MYA

Description: Said to be the ancestor to all vertebrates, this was the most primitive fish. It lacked a vertebrae, but had a skull, the definitive trait of vertebrates.

Genus: Arandaspis

Temporal Range: Early Ordovician 480-479 MYA

Description: Arandaspis was a jawless fish and the second oldest vertebrate found. It had gills, nostrils, and eyes protected by a plate. Its body frame is said to have made it swim like a tadpole

Class: Anapsid

Temporal Range: Early Silurian-Late Devonian

Description: Anaspid(this is a horrible name for this group, trust me) was a class of jawless, primitive fish, which lacked jaws, but showed a decrease in gill number, a sign that the jaw was evolving.

Genus: Guiyu

Temporal Range: Late Silurian, 419 MYA

Description: Giuyu is the oldest bony fish, and a transitional fossil in the fact it caries traits of both actincpterygii(ray-finned fish) and sarcopterygii(lobe-finned fish) Traits


Genus: Cladoselache

Temporal Range: Late Devonian

One of the oldest sharks in existence, Cladoselache is a nice transitional fossil. This shark lacked claspers, a trait that that separates sharks form other fish. What gave away the fact that it was a shark is its stream line body, like that of Lamniformes than any other shark.

Genus: Cyclabatis

Temporal Range: Upper cretaceous

Description: A species of ray that had a tail similar to that of a skate. It lived in a warm climate.


Genus: Andredepis

Temporal Range: Late Silurian, 420 MYA

Description: Andredepis is the oldest known Actinopterygii member, meaning it is the ancestor of all ray-finned fish

Genus: Amphistum

Temporal Range: Middle Eocene

Description: This was one of the primitive flounders. Its eye was located on the side of its head, near the top, during its adult hood. It is a flounder so that means, of course, that it had a flat body.

Genus: Heteronectes

Temporal Range: Middle Eocene

Description: This animal is similar to Amphistium

Genus: Eobothus

Temporal Range: Mid-Late Eocene

Description: The oldest flat fish with both eyes on top(like a normal flounder). It shows the emergence of flounders

Genus: Pholidophorus

Temporal Range: Middle Triassic-Late Jurrasic

Description: A very old telostei fish, this animal was similar to modern herring. IT was primitive in that it had ganoid scales and a cartilage spine. It also had bone so don't worry.

Genus: Anguillavus

Temporal Range: Upper Cenomanian epoch, Cretaceous

Description: The oldest known eel so far. It had pelvic fins, something eels don't really have, but and elongated body with an elongated anal fin.

Genus: Hippocampus

Temporal Range: Lower Miocene, 13 MYA

Description: Hippocampus(if you thought anapsid was a bad name for fish, than this is a nightmare name), is the oldest known genus of sea horses known so far. It has two important species H.slovenicus and H.sarmaticus as they are the transitional ones.

Genus: Nardovelifer

Temporal Range: Campanian epoch, Cretaceous 83-70 MYA

Description: The oldest known Lamprid

Genus: Eomola

Temporal Range: Middle Eocene, 56-34 MYA

Description: The oldest known sunfish, said to have evolved from some sort of reef fish. It can be distinguished from other members of its order at the time due to its separate premaxillae

Genus: Corydoras

Temporal Range: Late Paleocene, 58 MYA

Description: Corydoras was a fish that shared traits with the family callichthyidae. It has a short round head and low set eyes. Its anatomy shows it is similar to Corydoradinae and is classified in the genus Corydoras.

Genus: Ruffoichthys

Temporal Range: Middle Eocene, 56-34 MYA

Description: Ruffoichthys is a primitive rabbit fish

Genus: Palaeoperca

Temporal Range: Early-Mid Eocene,48-37 MYA

Description:This was a primitive species of perch

Genus: Trachicaranx

Temporal Range: Middle Eocene, 58-55 MYA

Description: Trachicaranx is a genus of carangidae that lived during the thanetian epoch of the middle Eocene

Genus: Histontophorus

Temporal Range: Early to Mid Eocene, 48-40 MYA

Description: Histonotophorus is not much known about. This primitive hand fish is sometimes places in the genus Brachionichthys

Genus: Eolactoria

Temporal Range: Lutetetian epoch, Eocene 48-40 MYA

Description: Eolactonia is a primitive member of the family ostraciidae. It has two long horns over each eye, and another pair next to its anal and caudal fins.

Genus: Proaracana

Temporal Range: Early-Mid Eocene, 48-40 MYA

Description: Like eolactoria only it dropped spikes for a diamond head. Proaracana was a primitive member of the family aracanidae.

Genus: Gazolaichthys

Temporal Range: Middle Eocene 48-40 MYA

Description: Was a primitive surgeon fish

Genus: Psettopsis

Temporal Range: Mid Eocene, 48-40 MYA

Description: Along with Pasdicthys, it was a primitive moonyfish

Genus: Eozanclus

Temporal Range: Lutetian epoch, Mid Eocene, 48-40 MYA

Description: A primitive ancestor of Zanclus Cornutus. It was Different because of its much shorter snout.

Genus: Cretatriacanthus

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 83-65 MYA

Description: Was a primitive member of perciforme

Genus: Protozeus

Temporal Range: Thanetian epoch, Paleocene, 58-55 MYA

Description: Protozeus, along with Archaeozeus, are both primitive members of Zeidae

Genus: Cooyoo

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 145 MYA

Description: Cooyoo is a primitive member of Ichthyodectidae

Genus: Protriacanthus

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 65 MYA

Description: Protriacanthus was a primitive tetraodontidae


Genus: Osteolepis

Temporal Range: Mid Devonian, 416-359 MYA

Description: Osteolepis was the ancestor of tetrapods and lungfish. It had stiffened bony components that was somewhat homologus from the humerous area to the radius. It is found at the base of the tetrapod evolutionary tree.

Genus: Panderichthys

Temporal Range: Late Devonian, 380 MYA

Description: Panderichthys is a fish more advanced than Eusthenopteron and was on the path to becoming the tetrapods. Its fins looked like a mix between fish fins and tetrapod hands. It is also suspect for causing the foot prints It is also supsect for causing the foot prints found in the Devonian. It had gills but had a tetrapod-like head.

Genus: Eusthenopteron

Temporal Range: Late Devonian, 385 MYA

Description: Eusthenopteron was not on the road to becoming the tetrapods, it does however share many common traits with them, showing a connection of tetrapods to fish. An example of this was its diphycercal fin, which showed a striaght spin of that in panderichthys, a fish on the path to becoming the tetrapods.

Genus: Tiktaalik

[Image: Tiktaalik_BW.jpg]

Temporal Range: Late Devonian, 375 MYA

Description: Tiktaalik was a fishapod coming from the Late Devonian. Tiktaalik had traits shown in fish and tetrapods. It had scales, fins, and gills like that of fish, but it had A flexable neck, ribs on its side, ear notches, and an almost complete homologous structure. This is of course, the coolest transitional fossil.

Genus: Elginerpeton

Temporal Range: Late Devonian, 375 MYA

Description: Elginerpeton is said to be a more advanced animal than tiktaalik. It is known for its shoulder,hip,femur, and tibia. These are the only parts found along with the lower jaw. These features are mosaic of other tetrapod transitions like Hynerpeton

Genus: Ventastega

Temporal Range: Late Devonian, 374.5 MYA

Description: Ventastega is said to be the first vertabrate with feet. It was found in fragments but major fragments that where found was its skull, a clavicle, a shoulder, pelvis, fibs, and a tail fin.

Genus: Acanthostega

Temporal Range: Femennian epoch, Late Devonian, 365 MYA

Description: Acanthostega was the first vertabrate to have digits, meaning its homologus structure is complete. It was also able to walk fully on land. Its is indicated it also had a lung, but its short ribs could not give it much support out of water. It also had gills and a operculum. Its structure also shows that the leg evolved for another purpose instead of walking on land.

Genus: Ichthyostega

Temporal Range: Famenian, Late Devonian, 360 MYA

Description: Ichthyostega was more davance than its cousin acanthostega. It is very amphibian like, but is not considered a amphibian. This animal would move across land like a seal. It still had fish gills and an operculum, despite that it is soft, and it also had functioning legs and lungs.

Genus: Hynerpeton

Temporal Range: Late Devonian 360 MYA

Description: It is not known whether it was an ancestor to tetrapods or just a cousin. It is said to be an amphibian like animal with complex lungs. It was also a powerful walker.

Genus: Tulerpeton

Temporal Range: Late Devonian, 365 MYA

Description: Out of all the tetrapod transitional fossils, Turlerpeton may be the best(after tiktaalik). It was capable of living on land, it had six digits instead of eight, it lacked gills, and it had a stronger limb structure. It still had scales on its belly However. It suggest the first tetrapods took land in the Late Devonian.

Genus: Pederpes

Temporal Range: Tournaisian epoch, Early Carboniferous,

Description: Once considered a fish, it is now said to be a tetrapod. It was the first tetrapod to life completely on land. It is indicated by its forward facing feet and the narrow shaped skull, which suggest it breathing like non-amphibian tetrapods.


Genus: Proterogyrinus

Temporal Range: Serpukhovian epoch, Mid carboniferous, 328.3-318.1 MYA

Description: An early amniote-like amphibian. Like amphibians, its life was still centered around water, but it was able to move onto land than other amphibians, meaning it had less competition from its cousins in the same superorder

Genus: Limnoscelis

Temporal Range: Early Permian

Description. Limnoselis is part of diadectomorpa, the closest relatives to amniotes. It might have had a skull similar to that of amniotes, but it also had claws on its digits. It is also said that it had a larval stage.

Genus: Tseajaia

Temporal Range: Permian

Description: A small amniote like amphibian, it is uncertain if it is part of Seymouriamorpha or Diadectomorpha. It is very similar to amniotes except that fact it didn't have claws.

Genus: Westlothiana

Temporal Range: Viséan epoch, Carboniferous, 335 MYA

Description: A old yet advanced amniote-like amphibian. It has the wrist, vertebrae and skull of a amphibian, but the rest of it was pretty much amniote.

Genus: Solenodonsaurus

Temporal Range: Bashikirian-Moscovian epoch, Late Carboniferous, 320-305 MYA

Description: This animals structure causes a debate whether it was a reptile or a amphibian. Like amniotes it was best adapted to life on land, lacked labyrinthodont folding of the enamel, and had a small otic notch compared to other reptiliomorphs.

Genus: Casineria

Temporal Range: Viséan, Carboniferous, 340 MYA

Description: Caineria is debated whether it is a amphibian or amniote. It has the build of amphibian reptiliomorphs, yet has claws and unfused ankles like amniotes. It is also said to be the first animal to lay an amniotic egg.

Genus: Hylonomus

Temporal Range: Bashkirian epoch, Carboniferous, 315-312 MYA

Description: The very first Reptile, it would eventually lead to animals such as dinosaurs birds and turtles.

Genus: Paleothyris

Temporal Range: Mid Pennsylvanian epoch, Carboniferous, 312-304 MYA

Description: This animal is the oldest known ancestor of diapsids. It still carried its primitive amphibian traits, as it lacked a fenestrae


Genus: Protocepsydrops

Temporal Range: Mid Pennsylvanian epoch, Late Carboniferous, 312 MYA

Description: This animal shows a connection between the synapsids and the reptiles. It resembled lizards, ans still had a vertebrae with tiny neural process typical to amphibians.

Genus: Archaeothyris

Temporal Range: Late Carboniferous, 306 MYA

Description: Archaeothyris is an animal beginning to become more mammal like. It had enlarged canines and its jaws could open more than that of a reptile. It had a reptile like skull and a lizard like gait.

Genus: Haptodus

Temporal Range: Early Permian, 299-296.4 MYA

Description: Haptodus was a pelycosaur-grade synapsid, which is the same informal group holding synapsids like Dimetrodon. It had large canine-like teeth. Its dentary bone was the largest part of its lower jaw, and its skull was deeper than that of its primitive ancestors.

Genus: Dimetrodon

[Image: dimetrodon.jpg]

Temporal Range: Early Permian, 295-272 MYA

Description: Dimetrodon was an advanced sphenacondontidae, a group which would eventually lead to the threapsids. Dimetrodon was apparently cold-blooded, as indicated by its sail and had sprawled legs, but it also had teeth like that of a mammal, specifically the canines and had a deep and narrow skull.

Genus: Biarmosuchus

Temporal Range: Wordian epoch, Permian, 267 MYA

Description: Biarmosuchus was a very primitive therapsid. It still had a long tail like that of pelycosaurs and had sprawled legs, but in turn it had a single canine as the first tooth on the maxilla, had internal nostrils covered by a partial fleshy palate and had an enlarge temporal opening giving it a more powerful bite.

Genus: Thrinaxodon

Temporal Range: Early Triassic, 248-245 MYA

Description: Thrinaxodon is the stereotypical look of what a mammal-like synapsid looks like. It still had the ability to change teeth throughout its life and lacked fur. Despite this, it has a mammal-like dentition, it behaved like a mammal, and even developed respiratory turbinates and palate, showing it was warm-blooded.

Genus: Cynognathus

Temporal Range: Early-Mid triassic, 247-237 MYA

Description: Cynognathus is a mammal-like synapsid. Its ribs also indicated that cynognathus had a diaphragm.

Genus: Morganucodon

Temporal Range: Late Triassic-Early Jurrasic, 205 MYA

Description: It was a early mammal, yet was just out side the mammalina crown group(a crown group is a collection of species that consists of the living representatives of the ancestors back to its recent ancestors.)

Genus: Juramia

Temporal Range: Late Jurassic, 160 MYA

Description: Juramaia is the oldest known therian mammal, its importance is in showing when the divergence of therians and marsupials happened

Genus: Yanoconodon

Temporal Range: early Cretaceous, 122 MYA

Description: Say hello to the first crown group of mammals. Its middle ear was similar to both mammals and mammiliformes.

Genus: Sindelphys

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 125 MYA

Description: It is the oldest known metatherian mammal known.


Genus: Kollikodon

Temporal Range: Abian epoch, Early cretaceous, 104-10 MYA

Description: Kollikodon was a partially aquatic mammal that used its mouth for crushing shellfish. It is unknown in most of its looks.

Genus: Steropodon

Temporal Range: early Cretaceous, 100 MYA

Description; An old member of the suborder platypoda. It shows some connection with therians based on its teeth.


Genus: Eritherium

Temporal Range: Paleocene

Description: Eritherium is an old genus of proboscidian that still shares traits with the manatees.

Genus: Phosphaterium

Temporal Range: Late Paleocene, 56 MYA

Description: Phasphatherium is the oldest known proboscedian. It had a flat face and no trunk , what reveals it as a proboscidean is the structure of its teetn.
Genus: Moeritherium

[Image: focus_moeritherium.jpg]

Temporal Range: Late Eocene, 37-35 MYA

Description: Moeritherium was an early proboscidian with a pig like body.. Moeritherium shows a evolution of the trunk through the fusion of the upper lips and nose.


Genus: Miacis

Temporal Range: Late Paleocene-Late Eocene, 60-55 MYA

Description: Miacis is what a actual catdog would look like(any one remember that show?) It had a dog like pelvis and had retractable claws for example.


Genus: Hesperocyon

Temporal Range: Late Eocene-early Oligocene, 42.5 MYA

Description: Maybe earths oldest canid, this animal would lead to the many canines on earth. It still has a body more like that of a civet with a long tail, though it did have canine teeth.

Genus: Leptocyon

Temporal Range: Oligocene-Miocene 24.8-10.3 MYA

Description: the little fox wannabe is what will end up becoming the modern canines. It is shown to be a transitional fossil by being connected to Eucyon

Genus: Eucyon

Temporal Range: Miocene, 10.3-3.3 MYA

Description: This is what was around before your best friend evolved(unless you are a filthy cat heathen). What separates it from Leptocyon is its frontal sinuses. This canine pulled a homo erectus and spread around the world.


Genus: Proailurus

Temporal Range: Late Oligocene-Early Miocene 25 MYA

Description: This cat still holds its primitive traits like a tail, eyes, claws, and teeth of viverrids. In short, it show a separation of cats and viverrids.

Genus: Pseudaelurus

Temporal Range: Miocene, 20-8 MYA

Description:Much more cat like than Proailurus, this genus will become your best friend(unless you are a disgusting dog infidel). It still had shor, viverrid-like legs however. It also was what brought the end of the cat gap

Species: Felis silvestris

[Image: 220px-Yawning_wildcat.jpg]

Temporal Range: 90,000-9000 years ago

Description: It may not be a fossil, but this animal is whate lead to what is our domesticated cat The first member of this genus to become Felis silvestris catus was in Africa.


Genus: Heteroprox

Temporal Range: Miocene, 15.97-11.61 MYA

Description: Heteroprox is the oldest known deer

Genus: Eotragus

Temporal Range: Early Miocene, 20-18 MYA

Description: Eotragus is the oldest known bovid

Genus: Protylopus

Temporal Range: Mid-Late Eocene, 45-40 MYA

Description: The oldest camel. Unlike modern camels it had hooves with no foot pads.

Genus: Kenyapotomus

Temporal Range: Mid-Late Miocene, 16-8 MYA

Description: The probable ancestor of hippos. It bore the teeth similar to that of xenohyus.


Genus: Hyrachyus

Temporal Range: Eocene

Description: Hyrachyus was a animal with a mix of traits of both tapirs and rhinos. It looked like a tapir and acted like one, but it lacked a proboscis common to tapirs and had rhino-like teeth.

Genus: Heptodon

Temporal Range: Eocene, 55.4-48.6 MYA

Description: Heptodon was not considered a tapir, but was most likely the ancestor. It did not have a truck, but the skull suggest it has an elongated lip.


Genus: Protictis

Temporal Range: Mid-Late Paleocene

Description: Meet the gliding rat thing. This animal did not have wings, but it shows the evolution of wings and flight in bats.

Genus: Onychonycteris

Temporal Range: Early Eocene

Description: The oldest true bat. Unlike bats it still had claws on all of its digits instead of only two or three. This bat may have not even been able to echolocate.


Genus: Purgotorius

Temporal Range: Paleocene, 66-63 MYA

Description: Purgatorius was a member of the order plesiadapiformes, and it is said to be the mother of all primates(that means you as well). It had the ankles the same as that of primates and though was ape like it had teeth like plesidopimorfs.

Genus: Apidium

Temporal Range: Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, 36-32 MYA

Description: Apidium is a known as a monkey with the traits of not just OWM and NWM, but also other primates as well. It still has small canines like primitive monkeys and even post cranial structure like prosimians. Like modern monkeys it has a fused symphysis menti and a scapula like that of squirrel monkeys. It still has molar cusp like tarsiers and Strepsirrhine(lemurs). There are three species in this cluster fuck genus.

Genus: Aegyptopithecus

Temporal Range: Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, 35-33 MYA

Description: Aegyptopithecus was a normal monkey, or it would be if it didn't carry the traits of apes. While still a monkey with its cercopithecoidea auditory features, the fact it can't brachiatiaon(arm swing), and it still had a tail. It holds the ape trails including ape like teeth, with broad flat incisors, and canine size difference in males and females, a low sagittal keel, strong temporalis muscles, and increased size in visual cortex. Its common name should be ape monkey.

Genus: Proconsul

Temporal Range: Miocene, 25-23 MYA

Description: Aegyptopithecus was the ape monkey, proconsul is the monkey ape. Taking from its monkey ancestors it has a monkey-like wrist and a monkey like illium. Its ape traits are the fact it lacks a tail and has a 5-Y pattern on the lower molar cusps. It is the base member of hominoidea.

Genus: Pierolapithecus

Temporal Range: Miocene, 13 MYA

Description: though not a monkey ape, it still has monkey like traits. these include short fingers, a structure that shows a baboon like walk, and it still lacked the ability to swing on trees. It did have a flat wide, rib cage of tree dwelling apes, and has a clavicle similar to that of chimpanzees. Some debate about this fossil due to its location in Europe(they beat homo erectus to Europe)

Genus: Sahelanthropus

Temporal Range: Late Miocene-early Pliocene 5.6-4.4 MYA

Description: Sahelanthropus is the reason I am typing up for this up for TTA, as if it was not for this fossil, I would not be around here. Sahelanthropus may be the potential ancestor of australopithecus, and the genus pan. There is still a big debate whether it was the ancestor of australopithecus and pan, or the ancestors of pan and gorilla. either way it is still an important fossil

Genus: Ardipithecus

Temporal Range: Late Miocene-Early Pliocene,5.6-4.4 MYA

Description: Two main species of this gunus is A.kadabba and A.ramidus. This animal is the ancestor of australopithecus. Like pan, it had a smaller brain, still had its foot thumb, and had more heavly curved phalanges that australopithecus. However it had reduced canines, and had some ability to walk bipedaly despite walking quadrupedal in the trees.

Genus: Australopithecus

[Image: th?id=HN.608042635052518775&pid=15.1]

Temporal Range: 3.9-1.7 MYA

Description: Australopithecus is the genus that will lead to the genus homo(humans). In order the list of Australopithecus is A.anamensis→ A.afarensis→ A.bahrelghazali→ A.africanus. These Australopiths are the ones that will lead to homo. These apes had sagittal crest, fingers that showed some form of arboreal life in the older species, a semisectorial premolar and a prognathic face. It was bipedal, which is shown in its kneews, hips, spine, foramen magnum, and its toes. It has much larger brain and it had a developed jaw. The order shown above is shown in age and the likeness of humans. For example, A.africanus is much more human like that A.anamensis. I also must add there is more that lucy for A.aferensis, infac there are eleven specimens.

Species: Homo habilis

Temporal Range: Pleistocene, 2.3-1.4 MYS

Description: the oldest known species of humans. Like previous apes it had a brow ridge, a foramen magnum located in a different area than younger human species, and teeth relativly large for humans. It does however have a 510-800cc brain size and a slightly prognathic face at a much steeper angle.

Species: Homo erectus

Temporal Range: Pleistocene, 1.9 MYA- 143,000 years ago

Description: This human was more like homo sapiens sapiens that homo habilis. It still had a heavy brow ridge, it still lacked language despite the increase in the broca area and it still had thicker bones than homo sapiens. H.erectus also had larger brian of 900-1,100cc, a more orthognathic face, and it had advanced tools like spears.

Species: Homo Rhodesiensis

Temporal Range: Pleistocene, 300,00-125,000 years ago

Description: this human is even more advanced that H.habilis and H.erectus. It still had large teeth, a brow ridge, though it had a very round cranium and a brain size similar to that of homo sapiens.

Species: Homo sapiens

Temporal Range: Pleistocene

Description: Why is this one here? Remember Felis sylvestris from earlier? there is something it has in common with Homo sapiens. both are species that lead to a modern subspceis. You and I are Homo sapiens sapiens, or what is called the anatomically modern humans. this base species lead to two subspecies, The other being H.s.idaltu


Genus: Eomansis

Temporal Range: Early Eocene

Description: The earliest known pangolin with scales. Unlike modern pangolins, it lacked scales on its limbs


Genus: Sivapithecus

Temporal Range: Miocene, 12.5-8,5 MYA

Description: This genus would lead to the subfamily Ponginae. It had a orangutan face but mostly lived on the ground based on its wrist structure.


Genus: Pakicetus

Temporal Range: Ypresian epoch, Paleogene, 55.8 MYA

Description: Believe it or not, this whale is a member of the extinct Archaeoceti suborder. It still had its land dwelling structures like legs, and teeth that where specialized teeth (molars, incisors, and canines are still aroudn) and a flexiable neck. The cetacean traits that it had where a sigmoid process, a bone that is found in the cetacean middle ears, and are only found in the cetacean middle ear.

Genus: Ambulocetus

Temporal Range: Lutetian epoch, early Eocene, 50-48 MYA

Description: More advanced than pakicetus, ambulocetus is called the walking whale, and for a good reason. It could still walk on land but was much better in water. It also had a adaptation in its nose to allow it to swallow underwater, and periotic bones like cetaceans allowing it to hear well under water, and it is losing its specialized teeth.

Genus: Kutchicetus

Temporal Range: Early-Mid Eocene 46 MYA

Description: This cetacean was more advanced that ambilocetus. It had a shorter tail and its four scaral vertebrae where attached to its hip. Its mode of swimming is the same as cetaceans. It still lacked vertebrae proportions, as they are not like modern ceteceans, and its limbs are still weight-bearing.

Genus: Artiocetus

Temporal Range: Early Lutetian epoch, Eocene, 47 MYA

Description: This whale is transitional as it explains the traits of what early fully aquatic whales had. It had small limbs, said to b webbed. It also shows the connection of cetaceans with its ex-order Aritiodctyla(like a relationship it is complicated)

Genus: Dorudon

Temporal Range: Late Eocene 40.4-33.9 MYA

Description: Dorudon is the first fully aquatic cetacean. It still had full structures in its hind limbs and also retained its incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. The nostril has been shown to be in the middle of the head instead of the front.

Genus: Mammalodon

[Image: th?id=HN.608029840345534275&;amp;P=0]

Temporal Range: Oligocene, 26 MYA

Description: This was a basal baleen whale. It lacked baleen, however it did have the traits of mysticeti with its short rostrum orbits directed anteiodorsally and reduced premaxille. It still had incisors and molars.

Genus: Aetiocetus

Temporal Range: Late Oligocene, 25-23.03 MYA

Description: Aetiocetus can be considered the ancestor to baleen whales, in the fact it was one. Though it still had teeth it also had baleen.

Genus: Kentriodon


Genus: Hyracotherium

Temporal Range: Early Eocene, 55-54 MYA

Description: Hyracotherium is basal to both horses and brontotheres.

Genus: Mesohippus

Temporal Range: Mid Eocene-early Oligocene, 40-30 MYA

Description: It had longer legs than eohippus. It had traits like early horses including having three toes. It was becoming more like a modern horse with its low-crowned teeth with a single gape behind the front teeth, a depression in the back of the skull, and six grinding teeth.

Genus: Pliohippus

Temporal Range: Mid Miocene

Description: Said to be the ancestor of astrohippus, it still has two toes on the side of its hoof.


Genus: Pezosiren

Temporal Range: Early Eocene, 50 MYA

Description: Pezosiren was a animal with a hippopotamus life style. In short this was a manatee that could walk on land.

Genus: Proratomus

Temporal Range: Mid Eocene, 40 MYA

Description: Proratomus is a later serian that was more aquatic than pezosiren

Genus: Eotheroides

Temporal Range: Mid-Late Eocene

Description: The first fully aquatic serien. Its teeth show it had a diet of mostly sea grass.

Genus: Halitherium

Temporal Range: Late Eocene-Early Oligocene

Description: This is the last step toward modern seriens. It lacked digits and hind limbs. It still had a femur however, which is fused with a reduced pelvis.


Genus: Puijila

Temporal Range: Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, 24-21 MYA

Description: A primitive seal with the body of an otter. It did not have flippers, though it has been shown to have webbed feet. It shows a relations between pinnipeds, ursoids, and musteloids

Genus: Potamotherium

Temporal Range: Aquitanian-Tortonian epoch, Miocene, 23.03-7.25 MYA

Description: This was the first seal. While it was very aquatic but still had legs similar to musteloids.

Genus: Enaliarctos

Temporal Range: Late Oligocene-Early Miocene, 24-22 MYA

Description: the first fully flippered pinneped. It still had teeth for tearing apart prey instead of catching fish.


Genus: Proterosuchus

Temporal Range: Early Triassic, 252-250 MYA

Description: The mother of all archeosaurs, this animal looked much lieka crocodile, and shared with them long strong jaws, a strong neck, with a long tail

Genus: Asilisaurus

Temporal Range: Mid Triassic 245 MYA

Description: This is said to be an old basal member of Avemetatrasalia. This animal still had some crocodilinan-like archosaur traits.

Genus: Marasuchus

Temporal Range: Mid Triassic, 230 MYA

Description: It was more dinosaur like archosaur, as it could walk on tow legs like a dinosaur. Some say that it is the very first one.


Genus: Eoraptor

Temporal Range: Eoraptor is the dawning of Saurischia. Its Dentation suggest it was an omnivore

Genus: Pisanosaurus

Temporal Range: Late Triassic, 228-216.5 MYA

Description: The oldest bird hip around, this dinosaur is the mother of all bird-hips(ornithischia)

Genus: Thecodontosaurus

Temporal Range: Late Triassic-Early Jurassic, 203-199.6 MYA

Description: The oldest know sauropod, it still was small, but what seperated it was its all plant diet.

Genus: Scelidosaurus

Temporal Range: Early Jurassic, 196.5-183 MYA

Description: Scelidosaurus was a basal thyreophoridian, meaning it was armoared. It eventually lead down to stegosaurs and ankylosaurs.

Genus: Huayangosaurus

Temporal Range: Mid Jurassic, 165 MYA

Description: This is the most basal member of stegosauria, it was smaller than its decedents.

Genus: Guanlong

Temporal Range: Late Jurrasic, 160 MYA

Description: Guanlong is the tyrant lizard prince, as it will on day give rise to the tryant lizard king. It was pretty much like later tyranosaurs minus the crest and the fact it had a functioning claw hand.

Genus: Falcanus

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 126 MYA

Description: This animal was a mix between predatory theropods and therizinosaurian dinosaurs.

Genus: Probactiosaurus

Temporal Range: early Cretaceous, 96-88 MYA

Description: The earliest know hadrosaur. It shows much in common with the igonodonts, seeing as it was once classified as one

Genus: Pelecanimius

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 130 MYA

Description; this wannabe pelican is the basal member of ornithomimosauria. It carried teeth, a primitive trait not found in later bird wannabes.

Genus: Mahakala

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 75 MYA

Description: A basal raptor, it was very small and is a god(or at least shares its name with one.) Some say it has a major connection in avian evolution.

(also known as zeke is biased towards these dinosaurs as they are his favorite)

Genus: Yinlong

Temporal Range: Late Jurrasic

Description: The oldest known ceratopsid. It was bipedal, and it shows a neck slowly becoming a frill. Ironically it also lived at the same time and area as guanlong, starting a battle that will lead till the end of the dinosaurs.

Genus: Stenpelix

Temporal Range: early Cretaceous, 127 MYA

Description: It is considered a basal ceratopsian. This classification is due to its hips, as its fossil lacks a skull.


Genus: Pedopenna

Temporal Range: Mid-Late Jurassic, 168-152 MYA

Description: It is only known for its leg, however teh leg was very avian like in structure.

Genus: Anchiornis

Temporal Range: Late Jurassic, 161-160.5 MYA

Description: Our friend Huxley here is an important part of avian evolution. It could not fly do to its win structure, still had a long tail, and had troodon legs. It does however have wings and legs the same length, bore primary and secondary wings on its legs and arms, and had a flexible wrist and feathers.

Genus: Archaeopteryx

[Image: th?id=HN.608032902658392090&;amp;P=0]

Temporal Range: Late Jurassic, 150.8-148.5 MYA

Description: This is the on transitional fossil everyone knows of, I mean it was recognized after Darwin published his book, which was similar to a book that some other guy wrote at the time as well, but Darwin beat him to it. Hail Darwin? Cause of it, creationist seem to think it is just a bird. Scientifically speaking, it is classified as one, it did have feathers, a fused furcula, and a back wards pointing pubis. However it was more fucking dinosaur than bird as it had a non-horned covered premaxilla and maxilla(meaning no beak), vertebra in the trunk region where free, was a non-aquatic bird with its neck attached to the back of its head, a long tail, free digits(meaning its fingers where unfused), pelvic girdle and femur like that of dinosaurs, flexable wrist, its foot bones are free, the fibula is equal in size as the tibia, and it had a deltoid ridge of the humerus facing anteriroly. How this thing can be called a normal bird by creationist despite all these beats me(and yes this was an explanation mixed with a rant)

Genus: Confuciusornis

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 125-120 MYA

Description: Now this is a dino bird(archaeopteryx is something else). It still had unfused digits, no alula and side bays facing glenoid, but it had a shorter tail bone, a primitive keel on a large sternum and had a tooth less beak.

Genus: Eoalularis

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 125 MYA

Description: This bastard is looking even more bird like. It still has two unfused digits but one is still fused. It also has an alula on the claw instead of a digit, a trait birds have but not dinosaurs.


Genus: Waimanu

[Image: th?id=HN.608003099873185321&;amp;P=0]

Temporal Range: Paleocene, 60-58 MYA

Description: This is the earliest known penguin. It was flightless, but still lacked the structures that make penguins who they are.

Genus: Elornis

Temporal Range: Late Eocene

Description: an early flamingo

Genus: Columboides

Temporal Range: Late Eocene-Early Miocene, 37-20 MYA

Description: A early gaviiform(loon) It was much smaller and not a great diver.

Genus: Masilloraptor

Temporal Range: Mid Eocene

Description: This animal was a basal falconiform. It had long legs, a beak as long as the cranium, it had small and weak claws and had the second toe shortened.

Genus: Primapus

Temporal Range: Early Eocene

Description: A early apodiform(order that includes, swifts, tree swifts, and hummingbirds).


Genus: Odontochelys

[Image: th?id=HN.607991490575404445&;amp;P=0]

Temporal Range: Late Triassic, 220 MYA

Description: This turtle was different from most turtles due to the fact that it lacked a carapace and horny beak, and it had teeth. It did have some form of half-shell which makes it out turtle evolutionary hero.

Genus: Proganechelys

Temporal Range: Late Triassic, 210 MYA

Description: The first turtle with a full hard shell and a toothless beak. It was primitive in its own way as it had a tail club and could not retract its head in its shell.

Genus: Eileanchelys

Temporal Range: Mid Jurrasic, 164 MYA

Description: The turtle pinnacle! it was the first aquatic turtle. In short it had an elongated post orbital skull, separate openings of the canalis cavernosum, and reduced thickness of the basicranium floor.


Genus: Darwinopterus

Temporal Range: Mid Jurassic, 161-160.5 MYA

Description: Darwinopterus was an animal with triats of both ramphs and pteros. It had a crest and a tooth beak and a long tail.

Genus: Pterothnchus

Temporal Range: Mid Jurrasic, 164 MYA

Description: This rhamph was a mixture of rampsh and pteros. It had a crest like pteros and teeth and a tail like ramphs.


Genus: Gangiguana

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous: 146-100 MYA

Description: It is the oldest known iguana

Genus: Cretaceogecko

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 125.0-99.6 MYA

Description: A monotypic genus of gecko. it was able to climb walls

Genus: Dallasaurus

Temporal Range: Early Cretaceous, 92 MYA

Description: This was a primitive mosasaur. It lived in both land and water and still lacked the structures that made mososaurs such great swimmers. It is the lizard pakicetus.

Genus: Palaeosaniwa

[Image: th?id=HN.607995179953684937&;amp;P=0]

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 75-70 MYA

Description: The ancestor to varanoidea

Genus: Anqingosaurus

Temporal Range: Mid paleocene, 61-58 MYA

Description: A basal chameleon


Genus: Eupodophis

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 92 MYA

Description: A transitional snake that has the limbs(though useless) of lizards and the body of a snake. It was a marine animal

Genus: Najash

Temporal Range: Late Cretaceous, 90 MYA

Description: It is a snake with functional hind limbs. It lived underground.


Genus: Gerobatrachus

Temporal Range: Early Permian, 290 MYA

Description: Gerobatrachus is a combination of salamander and frog. It was a basla member of Batrachia. It had a tail and a back bone that looks like a fusinon of anurans and caudata. It was frog like in the fact that it had a light and wide skull and it has a tympanic ear.

Genus: Traidobatrachus

Temporal Range: Early Triassic, 250 MYA

Description: This was a near frog animal, It had short limbs and was unable to hop, has fourteen vertebra instead of four or nine, and its tibia and fibia are unfused. It did have a light anuran skull however.

Genus: Vieraella

Temporal Range: Early Jurassic, 200 MYA

Description: the oldest species of frog. It still has 10 vertebrae though it can now hop.

Genus: Prosalirus

Temporal Range: Early Jurassic

Description: It was a primitive frog with its tail still around(though it was really small and useless). It was able to hop, a common trait of frogs, despite its short legs.

Caecilian Evolution

Genus: Eocaecilia

Temporal Range: Early Jurassic, 199.6-175.6 MYA

Description: The oldest known snake amphibian. It has limbs and lived a non-subterranean life style but had a serpentine body.


There is one point I must say, if you say there are no transitional fossils after seeing this you are really fucking retarded. I mean I made a whole list that took me months,granted it only was long because I was lazy, but that is no excuse. So creationist trolls who run by here read what I wrote, as magic won't send it.

And for those who read it to learn あり か゛と こ゛さ゛い ます, and I hope you learned something


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26-11-2014, 08:06 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
Favorited. Liked. Subscribe?

Soulless mutants of muscle and intent. There are billions of us; hardy, smart and dangerous. Shaped by millions of years of death. We are the definitive alpha predator. We build monsters of fire and stone. We bottled the sun. We nailed our god to a stick.

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26-11-2014, 08:08 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
(26-11-2014 08:06 PM)Stuffed_Assumption_Meringue Wrote:  Favorited. Liked. Subscribe?

There is a subscribe button on the bottomAngel

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26-11-2014, 08:41 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
Damn kid, I see great things in your future.

“I am quite sure now that often, very often, in matters concerning religion and politics a man’s reasoning powers are not above the monkey’s.”~Mark Twain
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26-11-2014, 08:44 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
(26-11-2014 08:41 PM)Full Circle Wrote:  Damn kid, I see great things in your future.

Thanks mate.

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26-11-2014, 08:46 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
(26-11-2014 07:43 PM)Metazoa Zeke Wrote:  Genus: Anomalocaris

[Image: Anomalocaris.jpg]

Your guy reminds me of this guy

“I am quite sure now that often, very often, in matters concerning religion and politics a man’s reasoning powers are not above the monkey’s.”~Mark Twain
“Ocean: A body of water occupying about two-thirds of a world made for man - who has no gills.”~ Ambrose Bierce
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26-11-2014, 08:47 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
Awesome !!

I just have one question.
Where does Chas fit on the table of transitional fossils ?
Just kidding. The devil made me ask that.

Insufferable know-it-all.Einstein It is objectively immoral to kill innocent babies. Please stick to the guilty babies.
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26-11-2014, 08:53 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
(26-11-2014 08:47 PM)Bucky Ball Wrote:  Awesome !!

I just have one question.
Where does Chas fit on the table of transitional fossils ?
Just kidding. The devil made me ask that.

He fits some where.

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26-11-2014, 09:24 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
(26-11-2014 07:43 PM)Metazoa Zeke Wrote:  

Genus: Proailurus

Temporal Range: Late Oligocene-Early Miocene 25 MYA

Description: This cat still holds its primitive traits like a tail, eyes, claws, and teeth of viverrids. In short, it show a separation of cats and viverrids.

Genus: Pseudaelurus

Temporal Range: Miocene, 20-8 MYA

Description:Much more cat like than Proailurus, this genus will become your best friend(unless you are a disgusting dog infidel). It still had shor, viverrid-like legs however. It also was what brought the end of the cat gap

Species: Felis silvestris

[Image: 220px-Yawning_wildcat.jpg]

Too bad that “cat gap” didn’t last into the present era Drinking Beverage

“I am quite sure now that often, very often, in matters concerning religion and politics a man’s reasoning powers are not above the monkey’s.”~Mark Twain
“Ocean: A body of water occupying about two-thirds of a world made for man - who has no gills.”~ Ambrose Bierce
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26-11-2014, 09:57 PM
RE: TTA's very own list of Transitional Fossils
(26-11-2014 08:47 PM)Bucky Ball Wrote:  Awesome !!

I just have one question.
Where does Chas fit on the table of transitional fossils ?
Just kidding. The devil made me ask that.

I am the transitional form from Homo sapiens to Homo logicas. Yes

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Science is not a subject, but a method.
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