WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
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24-06-2014, 04:30 PM
WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
Requested by Smercury44
[Image: DeEbol1.jpg]
The Basics


Proboscidea is an order of mammals, with elephants being the only extant member.

The main characteristic of this group is most either have a trunk and a pair of tusk, however some members do not have a trunk or tusk at all. The trunks of these animals are used as an arm in Proboscideans. This trunk is used to eat, grab items, and in modern elephants, used to obtain water. Tusk are also used for food, however they are used more for fighting in interspecific and intraspecific conflicts.
The tusk of Proboscideans have evolved from the incisors.

Proboscidean Evolution


The order Proboscidea belongs to the superorder Afrotheria. Afrotheira split from Exafroplacentalia 65 million years ago. The superorder is characterized by the structure of the foot.

The clade Paenungulata is next on the main groups Proboscidea belongs to. The animals classified in this clade are Hyracoidea, Proboscidea, Sirenia, the extinct Embrithopods, and the extinct Desmostylians. Most of the evidence to classify this group is genetics using hemoglobin sequences.

The last taxonomic rank Proboscidea belongs to is the clade Thethytheria. This includes all of Paenugulata besides Hyracoidea. These animals all have less bilphodont cheek teeth and anteriorly facing orbits.

The order Sirenia is the closest relatives to Proboscideans.
Proboscidea first appeared in the Paleocene 60.0 million years ago. The oldest member is Eritherium. This fossil is transitional because the structure of its teeth is the same as other paenugulata, however the teeth were specialized with three incisors and one canine, four premolars and three molars. This dentition is unique to proboscideans.

Genetics

Modern Elephants have 56 pair chromosomes.

Genetics of mastodons and woolly mammoths show that they are the closest relatives of modern elephants. It is said they share 99.9% of DNA. This DNA similarity has been used in order to clone elephants.

The genetics of elephants have also been used to indicate new elephant species. For example, genetics has revealed that there are two extant species of elephant instead of one. The two species are Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis.
Classification of Proboscidiea


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There are 10 families in the order Proboscidea.

Family:XPhiomia

The family Phimia is an extinct member of the order proboscidea. The name stands for "sawed-toothed animal". There is one genus with one species. The species is Phiomia serridens.

Phiomia Serridens was about 2.5 meters high. Despite its similar looks to a modern elephant, the structure of its skull reveal that it had a very short trunk. Phiomia serridens had two pairs of tusk, one upper and one lower. The upper tusk were used to fight and to scrape bark. The lower tusk were used to gather food. The structure of the skull is similar to the families Platybelodon, Archaeobelodon, Amebelodon, and Palaeeomastodontidae.

Phiomia serridens first appeared in the late Eocene 38.0 million years ago and disappeared in the early Oligocene 33.9-28.1 million years ago. The fossils of this animal was found in Egypt.

Family:X Palaeomastodontidae

The family Paleomastodaontidae is an extinct member of the order Proboscidea. This family has one genus.

Paleomastodon had two pairs of tusk. Its lower tusk where flat and used to scoop up food. The upper tusk where used for fighting. It is debated on whether it was the ancestor of elephants or mastodons. It first appeared in the Oligocene 36-35 million years ago. It is similar to Proboscideans Elephantomorpha,Heminastodon, and Phiomiidae. The fossils are found in northern and eastern Africa.

Family:XNumidotheriidae

Numidotheriidae is an extinct family of Proboscidea. This family has first evolved in the late Paleocene and went extinct in the early Eocene. There are three genera in this family.

Genus:X Daouitherium

Daouitherim is an genus in the family Numidotheriidae. There is only one species in this genus, Daouitherium rebouli. This proboscidean is only known from its jaw fragment. Fragments represent a left pine bough of 12 cm and height of the body to bone is 5cm. Despite the anterior dentition not being fossil handled, it is however indicated by demonstrating four existing dental alveoli. These dental aveoli are a short distance from each other. The small distance also indicates that the front set were not closed. Its prolonged first incisor is indicated by the foremost dental alveolus.

Posterior dentition includes three molars. The first premolar is reduced. IT is similar to Phosphatherium, Numidotherium, and Barytherium. This fossil was found in Sidi Daoui, and its genus name meas "Sidi Daoui Beast". It appeared and disappeared in the early Eocene.

Genus:XNumidotherium

Numidotherium is an genus in the family Numidotheriidae. There are two species, Numidotherium Koholense, which is the type species, and NUmidotherum Savagei, which may be a synonym for N. koholense.
The name Numidotherium stand for "Numidia Beast".
This genus appeared and disappeared in the middle Eocene. This animal looked like a tapir, but was slender and more plantigrade like Proboscidians. It was found in Dor el Talha, Libya, with another Proboscidean, Barytherium grave.

Genus:XPhosphatherium

Phosphaterium is a genus of the family Numidotheriidae. There is only one species in this genus Phosphatherium Escuillei.

This fossil is only known for its dentition. It is the second oldest member of the order Proboscidea. The diet of this animal was fruit. This proboscidean was abnormal as it had no trunk. This animal was also semi-aquatic.

Family:X Moeritheriidae

Moeritheriidae is an extinct family in the order proboscidea. Currently there is only one genus and five species. Those species are Moeritherum trigodon, Moeritherium lyonsi, Moeritheruim gracile, Moeritheruim chehbeurameuri, and Moeritherium andrewsi.

This order is believed to have not evolved into modern elephants. Instead they are believed to be a separate branch on the Proboscidian evolutionary tree. These animals are semi-aquatic and its dentition indicates that it ate soft water vegetation. It once filled the same ecological niche that the hippopotamus fill today. This animal was small by Proboscidean standards, only reaching up to 70cm high and 9.8ft long. This Proboscidean's skull also reveals that it might not have had a trunk, but a modified upper lip.

The first specimen was of Moeritherum trigodon, and was found in Qasr-el-Sagha formation in Al Fayyum in Egypt.

All other moeritherium besides one were also found in the same area. The exception was Moeritherium chehbeurameuri, which was found in Bur el Ater, Algeria. This family first appeared in the and disappeared in the late Eocene.

[Image: Prodeinotherium_sinense_by_DiBgd.jpg]

Family:X Deinotheriidae

Deinotheriidae is an extinct family of the order proboscidea. This family contains 3 genera. Deinotheriidae stands for "terrible beast", and all members of this family have down ward pointing tusk on the lower jaw. They all also lack incisor and canine teeth on the upper jaw.

The ecology of Deinotheriidae is said to be that this animal was a shearing browser. This means that it ate plants above ground level. J.M Harris argued this point in 1975 by describing that adaptations that have evolved in this family. The Deinotheres molars have little wear. This indicates that the food it ate was soft. The tusk pointing down also indicate its shearing browser life style as it was probably used to strip bark. The skull also indicates that it had a different chewing motion than other Proboscideans. Its front teeth were used for crushing food, while its molars where used for shearing. Unlike gamphotheres which had lateral grinding, and elephants which had horizontal shearing, Dienotheriidae had teeth more like a tapiar. Its forelimbs also gave indication of its diet. Deinotherium giganteum has a lower forelimb, which indicates a efficient stride used to travel across European savannas.

This family appeared in the late Oligocene and disappeared in the Pleistocene.

Genus:X Chilgatherium

This genus of Deinotheriidae was abnormal due to the different structure of its teeth. The teeth are distinct by the size and structure. It only has one species, Chilgatherium harrisi. The size of this animal is in between a large pig and a hippo. It is not known to have down ward pointing tusk as it is only known by teeth. This animal first appeared in the late Oligocene and disappeared in the early Miocene.

Genus:X Prodeinotheruim

Prodienotherium is an extinct member of the subfamiy Dieinotheriinae. This genus first appeared in the early Miocene and disappeared in the mid Miocene.

This genus has five species and three synonyms. The species are Prodienotherium bavaricum, Prodeinotherium hobleyi, Prodeinotherium orlovii, Prodeinotherium pentapotamide, and Prodienotherium sinense. Deinotherium cuvieri, Dinotherium secundarium, and Prodeinotherium hungarian are all synonyms to the genus. Prodeinotherium stands for "before terrible beast". The oldest member is Prodeinotherium hobleyi, a early Miocene prodoeinotherium found in Kenya, Namiba, and South Africa.

Genus:X Deinotherium

Deinotherium is a genus in the subfamily Deinotheriinae. This is the largest member of the family Deinotheriidae. There are three species in this genera and one synonym.

The species are Deinotherium bozasi, Deinotherium giganteum, and Deinotherium indicum. The one synonym is Dinotherium. This genus did not evolve into modern elephants and are their own branch on the evolutionary tree. They are mostly similar to gomphotheres and mastodons. Deinotherium gianteum is the type species for this genus. D. giganteum was found in Europe from the circum-Mediterranean and Romania.

The skull was 1.2m in length and.9 meters in breadth. This size indicates it was bigger than modern elephants and is one of the largest Proboscideans. Deinotherium indicum was found in India and Pakistan. It has a robust dentition of p4-m3 intravally tubercles. This distinguishes D.indicum as a species. D. indicum appears in the middle Miocene and died out in the middle miocene. Deinotherium bozasi was found in the Kanjera formation,Kenya.

D.giganteus gives a indtification of permanent tooth formula in the genus, with a dentation of 0-0-2-3top/1-0-2-3bottom, and with a vertical cheek replacement. These animals have vertical shearing teeth, which are their molars and rear premolars. The other molars and the canines are used for crushing D.bozasi has been found with the fossils of early hominid relatives of humans.

Family:XBarytheriidae

Barytheriidae is an extinct family in the order Proboscidea. Barytherium stands for "heavy beast". There is one genus,Barytherium, and two species, Barytherium gave and Barytherium omansi.

This primitive Proboscidean was large in size and had sexual dimorphism. This species was found in Fayum, Egypt, Dorel Talha Libya, and the Aidum area in Oman. This animal has eight tusk, found on the upper and four on the lower. The jaws looked more like that of a hippopotamus than a Proboscidian.

Family:XStegodontidae

Stegodantidae is an extinct family in the order Proboscidea. They first appeared in the Miocene and disappeared during the Pleistocene. The fossils of this family were found in Africa and Asia. It is sometimes argued that this family is a subfamily of Elephantidae.

Genus:XStegolophodon

Stegolophodon is a poorly known member of the family Stegodontidae. It may have evolved into stegodon. It lived in the Miocene and disappeared in the Pleistocene. It had four tusk and a trunk.

Genus:X Stegodon

Stegodon is a genus in the family stegodontidae.

It first appeared in the Miocene and disappeared in the early Holocene. Stegodons are one of the biggest Proboscideans. There are 13 species in this genus.

Stegodon fossils have been found in North America, mostly New Mexico and Canada.

The size of these animals were great. Some reaching 4m high and 8m long. The tusk reach 3m long. Some grew long enough where it was believed to have had the trunk draped over the tusk.

Despite their great size there has been a dwarf population. The dwarf stegodon is a subspecies called Stegodon florensis insularis. This is evidence of insular dwarfism of Stegodon florensis when the species migrated. This is actually parallel with the extinct primate, Homo floresiensis, which moved into the same region years later.

Stegodon has evolved into a branch of its own. It was once believed they were the ancestors of Elephantidae. Stegodons are considered by some to be a subfamily of elephantidae. Their molars separate them both, as stegodons have roof-shaped edges and elephants have each ridge high crown plated.

It is also believed the stegodons and elephants have inbreed before due to the large tusk in some Elephas Maximus, however the fact they have had a more recent mutation is more excepted.

Family:XMammutidae

Mammutidae is a family in the order Proboscidea. This family first appeared in the Miocene, and went extinct in the Holocene. This family is distinguished from others by its teeth. It has zygodont crest and absence of additional cuspids.

This family has three genera. Fossils of this family have been found in Burdur province, Turkey, Tomislavgrad in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dayton beach, Florida, and Portland,Michigan.

Genus:XEozygodon

Eozygodon is a poorly known genus in the family Mammutidae. It was a ground browser, and is said to be the ancestors of Mammutidae.

Genus:XZygolophodon

Zygolophodon is a genus in the family Mammutidae. There are 5 species in this genus and 4 synonyms. It is said that it might have evolved from tetralophodon.

Genus:XMammut

Mammut is a genus in the family Mammutidae. Members of this genus were social and had a diet of both browsing and grazing.

The name Mastodon means "nipple tooth" in Greek. The genus first appeared in the late Miocene, and went extinct in the late Pleistocene.The most popular species for this genus is the American Mastodon.

Mastodons may have looked like the Mammoth and the elephants but they are not closely related. This genus was shorter, but longer and more muscular. Each sex had different sizes. Males reach up to 2.8m and weighed up to 4.5 tonnes on average. However a large female and a small male will meet at the height 2.3m.

The skull of this animal was long and had curved tusk. Like others in its family its has zygolophodont molars, with cusp shaped teeth. This Proboscidian has left mtDNA in a fossil tooth. This discovery has helped in refining divergence dates in the Proboscidian phylogenetic tree. The mtDNA sequence change is faster in Primates than in Proboscidians.

Mastodons were social and had a social structure similar to elephants. However unlike elephants, both males and females seek out mates, instead of just males.

The extinction of this genus include many factors. One is hunting by the paleo-indians. Another was environmental change, causing stress to the population.

[Image: huff_gomph.jpg]

Family:XGomphotheriidae

Gomphotheriidae is an extinct family in the order Proboscidea. The name gomphothere means "pin beast".

What separates this family from the rest is the chewing structures of its molars. Most members of this family also had four tusk, two on the upper and two on the lower. The skull also shows a retraced face and nasal bones, showing that it may have a elephant like trunk. Some scientist have suggested that this family would eventually evolve into Elephantidae. This family has the has 17 genera, meaning that it it is the largest family in Proboscidea.

The diet of this family varied. Some are said to eat a C4 diet up north, and a C3 diet or a mix of C4 and C3 down in South America. These diets were indicated through isotopic analysis. When using closer analysis of plant micro fossils uncovered fragments of conifer tracheids and vessel elements with a ray of parenchyma cells found. These factors indicate the plants eaten were woods, spores, pollen, grains and fibers.

An example of C3 eater is genus Cuvieronius in Chile, Cuvieronis in Bolivia and Ecuador had a diet of both C3 and C4 . Specimens in La corolina peninsula were exclusively C4.

This family may have gone extinct when the specialized diets this family had, as environmental changes would cause the plants to evolve. Humans my have also have played a role in the extinction of Gomphotheres.

Genus:XGnathabelodon

Gnathabelodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. This genus is know for the elongated lower jaw in a spoon or shoe-horn shape. There are two species, Thorpe's spoon-billed mastodon(Gnathabelodon thorpei) and Buckner's spoon-billed Mastodon(Gnathabelodon buckneri). Unlike Playtybeldon and Amebeldon, this genus has no tusk on its lower jaw.

This genus first appeared in the middle Miocene and became extinct in the late Miocene.

Genus:XChoerolophodon

Chorelophodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. It had a flat skull and appeared and disappeared in the Miocene.

Genus:XGomphotherium

Gomphotherium is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. The genus has 14 species and 3 synonyms. Fossils of this genus were found in Chile, France, Germany, Austria, Kansas, Tennessee, Pakistan, Kenya, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

This genus looked similar to the elephant. However it had an elongated skull, upper tusked covered in enamel, and four tusk, with two on the lower jaw. The lower tusk were used for collecting food. The skull indicates that Gomphoterium had short tapir like trunks. This animal had fewer molars than other Proboscidians, and the molars had high ridges to expand grinding surface.

This genus first appeared in the early Miocene and disappeared in the early Pliocene.

Genus:XArchaeobelodon

Archaeobelodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. It's fossils were found in Europe and Africa.

This animal is said to be the ancestor of the genus Platybelodon and the genus Amebelodon. It weighted 2305-3477kg. It appeared and disappeared in the Miocene.

Genus:X Serbelodon

Serbelodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. There are two species, with Serbelodon barbourensis being the type species. The other species is Serbelodon burnhami.

This genus appeared and disappeared in the middle Miocene.

Genus:XProtancus

Protancus is a member of the family Gomphothere. This genus is poorly known and has two known species, Protuncus macinnesi and Protancus chinjiensis.

They first appeared and disappeared in the early Miocene.

Genus:XAmebelodon

Amebelodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. This genus is known for its shovel shaped lower jaw. This genus has four tusck, tow upper and two lower. There are for species in this genera, with each varying in different sizes. With Amebelodon smaller than an Elephas Maximus, and Amebelodon britti being the largest, as large as mammoths and weighing 10 metric tons.

The lower tusk are used for various reasons, mostly for digging up food. The lower tusk could scrape bark, and scooped up water plants. This animal was a versatile browser eating leaves over grass. Despite the pictures, this animal had a trunk like the family Elephantidae.

This genus first appeared in the middle Miocene and disappeared in the late Miocene.

Genus:XPlatybelodon

Platybelodon is a genus of the extinct tribe Amebelodontini. Fossils of this genus have been found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. Like Archaeobelodon and Amebelodon, it had tusk on its upper and lower jaws. There are four species in this genera.

This animals diet includes barks and leaves It has used its shovel like tusk on the lower jaw to cut off branches it grabbed with its trunk to eat. This genus appeared in the early Miocene and disappeared in the late Miocene.

Genus:XSInomastodon

Sinomastodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. The name of this genus means "Chinese mastodon". The fossils of these proboscideans were found in areas of China, Japan, and Indonesia

This animal size ranged from 3.6 to 5.3m. The best known species of this genus is Sinomastodon hanjiangensis. There are four species that are in the genus.

This genus first appeared in the late Miocene and disappeared in the early Pleistocene.

Genus:XEubelodon

Eubelodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae.

The fossils of this genus were found in Posion ivy Quarry, Antelope County, Brow County, Nebraska, and Tripp county. All of these areas are in South Dakota.

The genus lived and disappeared in the Miocene.

Genus:XRhynchotherium

Rhynchotherium is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. The fossils of this animal have been found in North American and Central America.

It is believed to have evolved from Gomphotherium

This genus has three species

This genus first appeared in the Miocene and disappeared in the Pliocene.

Genus:XCuvieronius

Cuvieronius is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae.

This genus has three species and one synonym Mastotherium. The type species is is Mastoterium hydon. Fossil of this extinct genus have been found on the continents North and South America. It has been found in areas like South and North Carolina, Florida, Chile, Yambo, Valle De Cauca, Colombia, the Andean and Mexico.

One special find had 38 pieces of flesh and hide persevered. The find was found in wooden structural remains, hearth areas and living floors. Some have been found on wooden poles. This suggest that humans may have used their hides to cover their homes.

This genus first appeared in the Pliocene and went extinct in the Holocene.

Genus:XStegomastodon

Stegomastodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. The name Stegomastodon means "roof breast tooth". This genus has four species.

What separates this genus from the rest is the molars, which were covered in enamel and had a pattern of complex ridges and knobbly protrusions.

This genus is also one of the few gamphotheres that have only two upper tusk.

This genus had an average size of 2.8m and weight of 6,000 kilograms. The tusk where 3.5 meters long. The skull also gave a brain weight, which was 5kg

Fossils have been found in North and South America.

The diets varied through out the species. Stegomastodon waringi was a grazer, while Stegomastodon platensis was a browser.

This genus first evolved in the late Pliocene and disappeared in the Pleistocene.

Genus:XHaplomastodon

Haplomastodon is a genus in the family gomphotheriidae. This genus is poorly known. Fossils of this genus have been found in Venezuela down to Argentina.

It appeared and disappeared in the Plesitocene.

Genus:XNotimastodon

Notimastodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae.

This genus only had two tusk. The fossils have been found in Tarija Provence, Bolivia.

They ate C3 and C4 grasses.

This genus appeared in the early Pleistocene and disappeared in the late Pleistocene.

Genus:XAnancus

Anacus is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. This genus has 9 species. Fossils have been found in Europe, Africa, and Asia. This genus had long tusk used for defense only. The tusk were 4m long.

The molars were different from Elephantidae as they have cusp. However they did have lamellae like Elephantidae. They were up to 3m tall and weighed 5-6 tonnes.

This genus first appeared in the late Miocene and disappeared in the early Pleistocene.

Genus:XTetralophodon

Tetralophodon is a genus in the family Gomphotheriidae. Tetralophodon means "four-ridged tooth".

There are four species in the genus.

The average size of the genus was estimated to be 3m tall with a trunk of 2m.

Its diet included fruit and leaves, making it a browser.

The genus first appeared in the Miocene and disappeared in the Pliocene.

Family:Elephantidae

Elephantidae is a gamily in the superfamily Elephantoida

This family has seven confirmed genera. Other families of proboscideans like Stegodon and Gomphotheriidae have been suggested genera but are considered close cousins

Genus:XPaleoloxodon

Paleoloxodon is a extinct genus in the family Elephantidae. This genus has 10 species. The fossils of this genus where found in Bilzingsleben, Germany, Cyprus, Japan,Sicily, Malta, and England.

The extinction of this had many factors. The main one is over-hunting by humans.

This genus first appeared 100,00 thousand years ago and went extinct 30,000 years ago.

Genus:XMammuthus

[Image: woolly_mammoth_1.jpg]

Mammoths are an extinct genus of the tribe Elephantini. This genus was different by its long hair and curved tusk. This genus has 10 species and three synonyms. The type species for this genus is Mammuthus prigmigenius.

The evolution of mammoths have been thoroughly studied using morphological studies. To study the evolution of this genus, molars were used. For example, primitive mammoths had a few ridges(i.e the African mammoth), while later ones had molars with more ridges and longer crowns on the teeth.

The oldest known species of mammoth is M.subplanifrons and M.Africanavus. The first European mammoth is Mammuthus rumanus. This mammoth was replaced by M.meridionalis, which in turn was replaced by M.trogontherii. M.trgontherii lead to the Woolly mammoth(M.primigenius) and the Columbian mammoth(M.columbi).


Mammoths sizes vary in range. The largest reached 4m high and weighted 8 tonnes. The normal size of other mammoths were 2.5m to 3m high and weighing 5.4 tonnes. The smallest was 1.72m high and weighed 760kg.

Thanks to genetics, scientist have discovered that mammoths have a gestation period of 22 months.

Mammoth fat was also important to the animal. The fat was used to control body heat and to increase muscle mass. The fat also helped hold and control nutrients.

The diet of mammoths depended on the species. For example M.columbi was a grazer, while the Mongochen mammoth ate herbs,grasses, and larch. European mammoths had a diet of C3 carbon plants. The young of mammoths ate the dung of adults. This was discovered when a baby mammoth was found. Its teeth were not developed, but it also had ascospores of coprophilous fungi, which is dung-loving fungi.

The extinction of this genus is controversial on what was the main cause of their extinction. Some say the major reason for the extinction of mammoths were human hunting. Others say the reason for their major extinction was due to climate change. Despite this both played a role in the extinction of mammoths. Other said causes of their extinction include infectious disease and even drowning is said to be a reason because of the travels across ice rivers.

Humans today are trying to reverse mammoth extinction. To do this, scientist must find suitable DNA from a mammoth then combine it with that of an elephant.

This genus first appeared in the early Pliocene and went extinct in the early Holocene.

Genus:XPrimelphas

Rimelephas is an extinct genus in the family elephantidae. This genus is hypothosized to be the common ancestor of Elphas, Loxodonta, and Mammoths. There are two species, Primelephas korotorennsis and the ype spcies Primelephas gomphotherides. This genus is strange for the fact it has four tusk, which shows it is gomphothere-like.

Genus:Elephas.

Elephas is an extant genus in the family Elepantidae. There are 11 species, 12 subspecies, and one synonym. There is only one extant species, the Asian Elephant(Elephas maximus)

Species:Elephas Maximus

[Image: asian-elephants.jpg]

The Asian elephant is a species in the genus Elephas. It is the only extant member of the genus.

This species is smaller than its African cousins, and the highest point of its body is its head. Elephas maximus has two bumps on the top of its head, while both Loxodonta has the top of its head smooth. This species has 20 pairs of ribs and 34 caudal vertebrae. The ears are small and have the dorsal borders folded flat.

This elephant reaches a height 2.7m to it shoulders in males and 2.4m to its shoulders in females. The average height of this species is 3.2m in males and 2.24m in females. Large males weigh up to 5.4t while females weigh up to 2.72t The length of this elephant is 5.5-6.5m. The tail is 1.2-1.5m long. The largest Asian elephant ever was a bull of a shoulder height of3.35m, a length of 8.06m from head to tail, and weight of 8tonnes.

The trunk of this elephant is a fusion of the upper lip and the nose. The trunk has a longitudinal and radiating sets. The longitudinal is mostly superficial. The longitudinal trunk is subdivided into the anterior, lateral , and posterior. The deeper muscles are seen as numerous distinct fasciculi, a skeletal muscle surrounded by perimysium, in the trunks cross section. The trunk has a ton of uses. The trunk is sensitive, thins is thanks to its maxillary division, a structure of the trigeminal nerve, and the facial nerve, a nerve that emerges from the brain stem, between the pins and the medulla. It also has an acute sense of smell thanks to its Jacobson's organ. The trunk is used to carry items,breath, washing,protection,feeding and drinking, trunking and dusting. Elephas maximus can carry 330kg with its trunk.

The tusk of Elephas maximus are usually only found in males. When females do have them, they are small and called tushes. Some males also lack tusk. They are called "filsy makhnas" and are most common in the subspecies Elephas maximus maximus.

For those Asian elephants with normal sized tusk use them for digging, debarking trees, display, fighting, and marking trees. Like human hands, some Asian elephants are left tusked or right tusked.

The largest tusk recorded was 1.5m long, with a girth of 41cm, and weighing 47,4kg. The heaviest tusk however was only 1.8m but weighed 45kg.

The intelligence of Elephas maximus is very impressive. This is thanks to its neocortex, and the large volume of its cerebral cortex. The cerebral cortex of Elephas maximus is larger than every primate, including humans. Their tool making skills match that of non-human great apes. These elephants can use tools, feel grief, have memory, play, mimic, and even form their own language.

Elephas maximus are crepuscular, meaning that they are most active at dawn and dusk. These elephants are social. Groups mostly include adult females and calves. Males are solitary, but will sometimes form bachelar groups. The size of the groups vary. Some only include three related females, however the normal size is around 13-15. Each group is lead by a matriarch, or they follow a very fluid social network, in which each elephant has a job.

The skin of the elephant is very smooth. The epidermis and dermix, the layer of skin between the epidermis and subcutaneous tissues. Most of the skin is grey and they have little hair. The skin temperature varies from 24 degrees Celsius to 35.9 degrees Celsius.

Elephas maximus reach sexual maturity at the age of 12-15. Male elephants go in a stage called musth when they are ready to mate or during certain conditions like abnormal access to food. In this period males become violent and have more that 60 times more testosterone than those not in musth. This happens when temporal glands become swollen, and a testosterone rich runs down the side of the head. Musth is important, as it keeps inbreeding in elephants very low, as all males will have a chance to mate. This only happens to males. In captivity male in musth must be kept in a separate cage in zoos. Female elephants do have sex pheromones. The pheromone is 7-dodecen-1-yl-acetate. The odd part about this is that this pheromone is found in many insect species.

Asian elephants are polygamous withe males having multiple mates.

The gestation period of Elephas maximus is 22 months. The young are fully developed in the womb at 19 months however. These animals usually only have one calf, however on a rare occasion females will have twins. The female will not mate until the young is weaned. This means they won't mate for 4-5 years.

Elephas maximus is scattered across southern west Asia. They live in places like Indian and Thailand.

[Image: map_59669_1.jpg]

This species first appeared in the late Pliocene and are alive today, however they are endangered.

Genus:Loxodonta

Loxodonta is an extant genus in the family Elephantidae. The name Loxodonta means "oblique sided tooth." This genus is separated from other genera mainly because they only live in Africa. There are 5 species and 4 subspecies. The only two extant species are the African bush elephant(Loxodonta africana) and the African forest elephant(Loxodonta cyclotis). Despite the speration some consider Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis to be the same species.

Loxodonta live in Africa, and are found in places like Kenya and Ethiopia.

[Image: 9287753-african-elephant-range.jpg]

Species:Loxodonta africana

[Image: African-bush-elephant-35.jpg]

The African bush elephant is a species in the genus Loxodonta. This species has one synonym.

The African bush elephant is the largest extant terrestrial animal. Males reach 3.5 m tall in males and 2.8m tall in females. Males weigh 6 tonnes and females weigh 3.7 tonnes. They are larger than their Asian counterparts. They have bigger ears that are not folded in anyway. The ears of these elephants can radiate excess heat.

The African bush elephant is a browser and a grazer. Its diet includes leaves, fruits, bark, and under water plants. Loxodonta africana can eat up to 225kg of food a day.

Both males and females of this species have tusk. The tusk are used to fight, dig, find food, and mark territory. The teeth of the African bush elephant are large, each molar being 10cm wide and 30cm long.

The social structures of Loxodonta africana are similar to that of Elephas maximus. Herds are always lead by a matriarch. Males form bachelor groups when they are young with other young males, but will become completely solitary when older. Despite the claim, elephant gravyards are not real. When one does die however, members of its herd will stay close to the dead body and grieve at the death of their fallen member. They even do this when they see the dead body of a stranger. Loxodonta africana form strong bonds with each other, and will acknowledge a mother with new young by touching trunks.

Loxodonta africana reach sexual maturity around 10-11 years of age. When a female is ready to mate, she will make low frequency sounds. Males will come when they hear this call. When tow males end up heading towards the same female a battle will ensue. These animals have gruesome fights due to their musth, with some males losing tusk. The female will rub against the male she wants to mate with and she leaves the heard with him for a little. The calves end weaning at five months. At six months they begin eating solid food. At the age of 15 they lose their milk teeth that are replacement teeth, which those teeth will be replaced at age 30, then those more teeth replace those at age 40.

Species:Loxodonta cyclotis

[Image: african-forest-elephant3.jpg]

The African forest elephant is a species in the genus Loxodonta.

This elephant is similar to its sister species, Loxodonta africana. However this elephant is smaller and it reaches sexual maturity faster.

The tusk of these animals are harder and straighter than Loxodonta africana, and they are also pink.

The diet of this animal is that of a browser, eating leaves, fruit, and bark. This animal also visits mineral licks.

Loxodonta cyclotis reach 2.5m tall in males. The largest found was a 4m tall male. The average weight of a male is 2.7 tonnes and the heaviest found is 6 tonnes.

Anatomy of Extant Elephants

Internal Anatomy


Organ:The heart

The heart of the elephant weighs 20-30kg. Like other mammals it has a four chambered heart. The heart beat of an elephant beats 30 times a minute. Elephants have faster heart beats while resting, which is strange as most other animals have lower heart beats while resting.

Organ:Lung

The lungs of elephants are special as they lack a pleural space between the lung and chest wall. Instead they have a connective tissue to fill the gap.

Elephants can breath through their mouth, trunk, and internal nares in their forehead.

Organ:Brain

Elephants are on of the most intelligent animals alive today. The elephant brain has 257 billion neurons. The elephant brain has a very large neocortex, the part of the brain used for motor commands, spatal reasoning, and thought.

Elephas Maximus have the largest cerebral cortex of all land animals.

The gyrus of elephants are more complex and numerous than primates. Elephants have cortical neurons and cortical synapses that are less complex than cetaceans. Thanks to these combinations, elephants rival dolphins and chimpanzees in intelligence. This intelligence is also supported by spindle neurons in the elephant brain.

The elephant also has hippocampus bigger than primates and cetaceans, as it makes up 0.7% of the brains central structure. They even beat humans, as humans hippocampus makes up 0.5% of their brains. The hippocampus is the part of the brain linked to emotions and memory.

The encephlization quotient(the measure of brain size of the actual brain mass and the predicted brain mass, used to hypothesize the rough estimate of an animals intelligence) is at a range of 1.13-2.36, with the average being 2.14 in Elephas maximus, and 1.67 in Loxodonta. The only animal to beat elephant in this are homo sapiens sapiens, as they have an EQ of 7.44

Organ system:Digestion

Elephants are simple stomached animals. Because of its simple stomach, adaptations had to evolve in order to digest the food elephants eat.

The saliva of an elephant will break down food through special enzymes. The saliva and the mucus are used as a lubricant and help the food slide down the esophagus.

Most elephant digestion takes place in the intestines. The bacteria in the intestinal tract help with the fermentative digestion of cellulose. This takes place in the caecum, this part of the intestine has smaller sacs and nutrients are absorbed through thin walls.

Organ system:Urinary

The kidneys of the elephant are bilateral. The elephant kidney has 5-7 lobules and are multilobar. The urinary bladder can hold 6-18 liters, and elephants urinate 10-15 times a day.

Structure: Skeleton

Elephants have 326-351 bones in their body. One of the most important bones of the elephant is the cancellous bone, a bone made of two types of osseous tissue.

Structure:Teeth

Elephants today have 26 teeth. These teeth are the two tusk, which are incisors, 12 deciduous premolars, and 12 molars. Modern elephants are polyphyodonts, meaning their teeth are replaced more than once. There are six times that an elephant will replace its teeth in its life.

Organ system: Sexual

Male elephants have strange testicles, as unlike most placentals, its testicles are located inside of its body. Male elephants have a 2 meter long reproduction tract. There testicles are found right behind and under the kidneys.

Thanks to endocrine research we can predict elephant reproduction patterns. We can predict ovulation,conception, and parturition thanks to endocrine research.

External Anatomy

Structure:Ears

The ears of the genus Elephas and Loxodonta are different in size, function, and shape. Loxodonta use their ears to keep cool. Elephas has no real need to use its ears to keep cool as it lives in the jungle and does not always receive as much sun light due to the trees.
The hearing of these animals are great as they can hear low frequency noises.

Structure:Trunk

The trunk is the most important structure of the modern elephant. Loxodonta have 150,000 separate muscle fascicles, while Elephas has 60,000. The trunk is divided into dorsals, ventrals and laterals. The trunk has multiple actions. They are used as snorkels, used to make noise, breathing, and grasping. The nostrils of the trunk have a sensitive jacobson's organ, as they have a sense of smell four times stronger than that of a bloodhound.

The trunk of Elephas is more flexible and can do more actions that Loxodonta. Elephant trunks also have nasal septum, which is a fleshy external pair of the nose that separates the nose into two nostrils. At the end of the trunk there are two finger-like extensions at the tip of the trunk, which helps it hold objects.

Organ:Skin

Elephants have tough skin. The skin of an elephant is 2.5 cm. The mouth, anus and inner ear however have thinner skin that the rest of the body. The skin is gray in adults and brownish grey in calves. Depigmentation happens on the forehead ears of members of the genus Elephas.

To keep skin safe from the sun, Loxodonta use mud to harden and protect the skin from ultraviolet light. Mud baths also protect them from insect bites and moisture loss. Elephant skin has a low surface-area-to-volume ratio.

The Ecology of Elephas and Loxodonta

Both of these genera are important to the environment.

Loxodontat africana are a keystone species in Africa. When they uproot trees, the undergrowth can turn from savannas into grasslands. When they dig for water in the dry season, they create a new watering hole. Loxodonta also create new paths in Mount Elgon, making it easier for animals to travel through the cave. Both genera disperse seeds and help the growth of plants in their habitat. They also provide food for other animals, as they leave undigested plant matter in their dung.

Elephants have little predators. Loxodonta young are hunted by lions, spotted hyenas, and wild dogs. Elephas calves are hunted by tigers. This is good as nematodes are common in elephants, and a combination of both would lead to their extinction.

The History of Proboscidea and Homo Sapiens

If anything proboscidea has had history with the primate, homo sapiens. Many proboscideans were once prey to Homo sapiens, and were one of the many factors of their extinction. Proboscidians like mammoths,mastodons and Gomphotheriidae are the main examples. Proboscideans have been around 59,800,000 years before the first homo sapiens appeared, yet Homo sapiens have effected many known species. Elephas and Loxodontat have the largest history with the hyper-intelligent
primate.

Elephas maximus has a strong history with Homo Sapiens. The first captive Elephas maximus was in the Indus Balley civilization around 2,000 BCE. Elephas maximus is used by Homo sapiens for travel, entertainment, and even war. Loxodonta africana is also used for travel and war.

Elephants used for war were known as war elephants. These elephants would charge at the enemy, crush opponents, and carry supplies. The units using ware elephants are called elephantry. Countries that used Elephas maximus for war are India, China, Persia, and the Mediterranean. Loxodonta africana was used for war in Africa and Europe. War elephants were used in wars like the Carnatic Wars(Loxodonta africana),The Battle of Avarayr(Elephas maximus), the Battle of Zama(Loxodonta africana) and the Great Battle of Yuthahatthi(Elephas maximus).


The same elephants used for war were also used as punishment. Death by elephant would be preformed in front of a whole crowd of people. The elephants would slowly crush a human. Some elephants would slowly rip people apart. Some would go for a rapid kill. Out of all of these the slow crushing is the most notorious. When crushing a human, the elephant would put its foot down on the chest are or head. The elephant would that slowly move its foot downwards. It will stop and the elephants master would make sure the person being crush feels the pain and suffers longer before continuing. The process of this punishment could take hours.

War elephants are still in use today. In fact war elephants were used in WW1 to haul ammo, the same was true with WW2. The last time and elephant was said to actually be used in war was in 1887 in Iraq to transport heavy weaponry to Kirkuk.

Elephants are also known for being circus animals. The first to use elephants for entertainment where in the leaders menageries in ancient Egypt,China, Greece and Rome.

The most famous circus elephant was Jumbo, who was a Loxodonta africana. He was born in 1861 in the wild and died on September 15, 1885 at the age of 24. He practically lived his whole life in captivity. Jumbo was sold from place to place, from zoo to zoo, from circus to circus. When he was born, his mom was killed and he was taken by elephant hunter Taher Sheriff. He died from a impact from a locomotive. Even after his death, his legacy lives on. He has a song by Jame Gordon called "Jumbo's Last Ride", he is the mascot of Tufts University, and he had a statue erected of him in 1985 in St.Thomas,Ontario.

Elephants are even worshiped as gods. For example, in Hinduism the god Ganesha is a deity that rides on a mouse. He is known as the lord of success and is the son of Shiva and Parvati. Ganesha is also the destroyer of pride. He is said to have his elephant head because his father Shiva, severed his head when denied access to his home by a stranger. He told the gana to fetch the head of any sleeping animal and it happened to be a Elephas maximus.

Elephas and Loxodonta Need Help!

Both of these proboscideans are in trouble. Pouching and removal of habitat are the main cause. Elephas maximus is endangered and Loxodanta cyclotis and africana are vulnerable. If you can help keep these animals extant as long as you can that would be great. How do you help keep Elephants extant? You can donate to groups that help wild life and you can educate others on the important of elephants. Every little bit of help is greatly appreciated.

Other sources

http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/mesa...scidea.php

http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/ac...oboscidea/

http://www.animalcorner.co.uk/wildlife/e...atomy.html

http://www.elephant.se/proboscidea.php?o...0elephants

http://ethnobiology.net/of-humans-and-elephants/

https://www.iucn.org/about/work/programm..._genetics/

[Image: elephants-unite-gif.gif?w=600]

Thanks for reading.

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24-06-2014, 06:27 PM (This post was last modified: 24-06-2014 06:31 PM by Smercury44.)
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
Paleo, I loved every word (that I could understand Blush a lot of the evolutionary stuff was over my head). I just wrote some thoughts down as I read, here's all that:

Insular dwarfism in the stegodon, neat! Thumbsup

Mastodon means "nipple tooth" in Greek? Why did they have a word for that? Consider and they sought out mates, awww Heart

Wow the proboscidea really got around! I'm impressed with how many different areas they've found fossils. So cool!!

Interesting that Cuvieronius' hides were used by humans as covering for their homes.

"Elephas maximus can carry 330kg with its trunk." Wow!!!

"These elephants can use tools, feel grief, have memory, play, mimic, and even form their own language." This is why I love elephants so much Big Grin Heart

"The odd part about this is that this pheromone is found in many insect species." Does the pheromone trigger male stages of musth at all? Just wondering if insects ever start getting them all hot and bothered when there are no females around Shocking

"The female will not mate until the young is weaned. This means they won't mate for 4-5 years." Do the females have to fight of males in musth because of their need to mate and a high level of aggression, or do they emit a hormone that kind of let's males know they are off limit? Could get dangerous for gestating females Confused

Wow, you can really see he difference between the Asian and African elephants, way cool!! Big Grin Thumbsup

"When one does die however, members of its herd will stay close to the dead body and grieve at the death of their fallen member. They even do this when they see the dead body of a stranger. Loxodonta africana form strong bonds with each other, and will acknowledge a mother with new young by touching trunks. " Sadcryface Weeping the feels Sadcryface

Everything in the anatomy section was just awesome!! Shy loved it!!!

"War elephants are still in use today. In fact war elephants were used in WW1 to haul ammo, the same was true with WW2. The last time and elephant was said to actually be used in war was in 1887 in Iraq to transport heavy weaponry to Kirkuk." Seriously?!?!?!? I had no fricken clue!

Thank you so much for all of your hard work Paleo!! I loved this. Really enjoyed reading it. You're so smart, and so nice for putting this together for me. Hug you're the best!!!

I hope that the world turns, and things get better. But what I hope most of all is that you understand what I mean when I tell you that, even though I do not know you, and even though I may never meet you, laugh with you, cry with you, or kiss you, I love you. With all my heart, I love you. - V for Vendetta
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24-06-2014, 06:33 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
I always enjoy these posts also.

Poor elephants are so often abused.

They are amazing animals.

[Image: dobie.png]Science is the process we've designed to be responsible for generating our best guess as to what the fuck is going on. Girly Man
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24-06-2014, 06:36 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
(24-06-2014 06:33 PM)Dom Wrote:  I always enjoy these posts also.

Poor elephants are so often abused.

They are amazing animals.

They are abused too much Sadcryface I know all animal abuse is wrong, it always gets me right in the feels, but elephants seem so aware and emotional, it breaks my heart! Weeping

I hope that the world turns, and things get better. But what I hope most of all is that you understand what I mean when I tell you that, even though I do not know you, and even though I may never meet you, laugh with you, cry with you, or kiss you, I love you. With all my heart, I love you. - V for Vendetta
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24-06-2014, 06:40 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
I'll need a bit more time to read this. Big Grin

Thanks for posting it, I can't wait to read all of it.


But as if to knock me down, reality came around
And without so much as a mere touch, cut me into little pieces

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24-06-2014, 07:01 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
That was alot of work, Paleo, but well worth it Thumbsup And thank you Shy
Whenever Guley learns something, you can be sure that the presentation of the new information had to have been truly EPIC Tongue

Awesome post Big Grin

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25-06-2014, 01:07 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
That was amazing. I learned quite a bit I never knew. And I can tell you from experience elephants are amazing creatures, graceful but also terrifying.

We must have more.

The requirement of evidence to back your claim does not disappear because it hurts your feelings, reality does not care about your feefees.
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25-06-2014, 07:22 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
(25-06-2014 01:07 PM)Blackhand293 Wrote:  That was amazing. I learned quite a bit I never knew. And I can tell you from experience elephants are amazing creatures, graceful but also terrifying.

We must have more.

I am starting another soon, but it won't be on animals.

[Image: Guilmon-41189.gif] https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOW_Ioi2wtuPa88FvBmnBgQ my youtube
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25-06-2014, 07:43 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
(25-06-2014 07:22 PM)Metazoa Zeke Wrote:  
(25-06-2014 01:07 PM)Blackhand293 Wrote:  That was amazing. I learned quite a bit I never knew. And I can tell you from experience elephants are amazing creatures, graceful but also terrifying.

We must have more.

I am starting another soon, but it won't be on animals.

Can Paleo and Metazoa-Zeke combine powers?
become Palaeos Metazoa, perhaps?

Beat_stick I shut up Tongue

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25-06-2014, 07:45 PM
RE: WHAT THE F@#K IS PROBOSCIDEA!!!???
(25-06-2014 07:43 PM)TheGulegon Wrote:  
(25-06-2014 07:22 PM)Metazoa Zeke Wrote:  I am starting another soon, but it won't be on animals.

Can Paleo and Metazoa-Zeke combine powers?
become Palaeos Metazoa, perhaps?

Beat_stick I shut up Tongue

Nope paleo is dead, metazoa zeke is new and improved. Call me zeke.

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